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Welcome to Mining Massive Datasets.
I'm Anand Rajaraman and today's topic is Map-Reduce.
In the last few years Map-Reduce has emerged as a leading paradigm for
mining really massive data sets.
But before we get into Map-Reduce proper, let's spend a few minutes trying to
understand why we need Map-Reduce in the first place.
Let's start with the basics.
Now we're all familiar with the basic computational model of CPU and
memory, right?
The algorithm runs on the CPU, and accesses data that's in memory.
Now we may need to bring the data in from disk into memory, but
once the data is in memory, fits in there fully.
So you don't need to access disk again, and
the algorithm just runs in the data that's on memory.
Now there's a familiar model that we use to implement all kinds of algorithms, and
machined learning, and statistics.
And pretty much everything else.
All right?
Now, what happened to the data is so
big, that it can't all fit in memory at the same time.
That's where data mining comes in.
And classical data mining algorithms.
Look at the disk in addition to looking at CPU and memory.
So the data's on disk,
you can only bring in a portion of the data into memory at a time.
And you can process it in batches, and you know, write back results to disk.
And this is the realm of classical data mining algorithms.
But sometimes even this is not sufficient.
Let's look at an example.
So think about Google, crawling and indexing the web, right?
Let's say, google has crawled 10 billion web pages.
And let's further say, that the average size of a web page is 20 KB.
Now, these are representative numbers from real life.
Now if you take ten billion webpages, each of 20 KB,
you have, total data set size of 200 TB.
Now, when you have 200 TB, let's assume that they're using
the classical computational model, classical data mining model.
And all this data is stored on a single disk, and
we have read tend to be processed inside a CPU.
Now the fundamental limitation here is the bandwidth,
the data bandwidth between the disk and the CPU.
The data has to be read from the disk into the CPU, and
the disk read bandwidth for most modern SATA disk representative number.
Is around 50MB a second.
So, so we can read data at 50MB a second.
How long does it take to read 200TB at 50MB a second?
Can do some simple math, and
the answer is 4 million seconds which is more than 46 days.
Remember, this is an awfully long time, and
is just the time to read the data into memory.
To do something useful with the data, it's going to take even longer.
Right, so clearly this is unacceptable.
You can't take four to six days just to read the data.
So you need a better solution.
Now the obvious thing that you think of is that it can split the data into chunks.
And you can have multiple disks and CPUs.
you, you stripe the data across multiple disks.
And you can read it, and, and process it in parallel in multiple CPUs.
That will cut down, this time by a lot.
For example, if you had a 1,000 disks and CPUs, in four thousa-,
4 million seconds.
And we were completely in parallel, in 4 million seconds, you could do the job in,
4 million by 1,000, which is 4,000 seconds.
And that's just about an hour which is, which is very acceptable time.
Right? So
this is the fundamental idea behind the idea of cluster computing.
Right? And this is,
this tiered architecture that has emerged for
cluster computing is something like this.
You have the racks consisting of commodity Linux nodes.
As you go with commodity Linux nodes because they are very cheap.
And you can, you can buy thousands and thousands of them and, and rack them up.
you, you have many of these racks.
Each rack has 16 to 64 of these commodity Linux nodes and
these nodes are connected by a switch.
and, the, the, the switch in a rack is typically a gigabit switch.
So there's 1 Gbps bandwidth between any pair of nodes in rack.
Of course 16 to 64 nodes is not sufficient.
So you have multiple racks, and all the,
the racks themselves are connected by backbone switches.
And the backbones is,
is a higher bandwidth switch can do two to ten gigabits between racks.
Right? So so we have 16 to 64 nodes in a rack.
And then you, you rack up multiple racks, and, and you get a data center.
So this is the standard classical architecture that has emerged over
the last few years.
For you know, for storing and mining very large data sets.
Now once you have this kind of cluster this doesn't solve the problem completely.
Because cluster computing comes with it's own challenges.
But before we get there, let's get us, you know, ideal of the scale, right?
In 2011 somebody estimated that Google had a million machines,
million nodes like this.
In stacked up you know, is, is somewhat like this.
So, so it gives, so that gives you a sense of the scale of modern data centers and,
and, and clusters, right?
So here's, here's a picture.
This is what, it looks like inside a data center.
So the, the, what you see there is, is the back up racks, and
you can see the connections, between, between the racks.
Now, once you have such a big cluster,
you actually have to do computations on the cluster.
And clustered computing comes with its own, challenges.
The first and the most major challenge is that nodes can fail.
Now a single, node doesn't fail that often.
Right? If you,
if you just connect, the next node and
let it stay up, it can probably stay up for, three years without failing.
Three years is about a 1,000 days.
So that's, you know, once in a 1,000 days failure isn't such a big deal.
But now imagine that you have a 1,000 servers in a cluster.
And in your, and if you assume that these, servers fail, independent of each other.
You're going to get approximately one failure a day.
Which is, still isn't such a big deal.
You can probably deal with it.
But now imagine something on the scale of Google which has a million servers,
in its cluster.
So if you have a million servers, you're going to get a 1,000 failures per day.
Now a 1,000 failures per day is a lot and
you need some kind of infrastructure to deal with that kind of failure rate.
Your failures on that scale introduce two kinds of problems.
The first problem is that if, you know, if nodes are going to fail and
you're going to store your data on these nodes.
How do you keep the data and store persistently?
What does this mean?
Persistence means that once you store the data,
you're guaranteed you can read it again.
But if the node in which you stored the data fails, then you can't read the data.
You might even lose the data.
So how do you keep the data stored persistently if like,
these nodes can fail.
Now the second problem is is is one of availability.
So, let's say you're running one of the computations, and this computation is, a,
you know, analyzing massive amounts of data.
And it's chugging through the computation and
it's going, you know, run half way through the computation.
And, you know, at this critical point, a couple of nodes fail, right?
And that node had data that is necessary for the computation.
Now how we deal with this problem.
Now in the first place you may have to go back and
restart the computation all over again.
But if you restart it now and, and, and
the computation turns again when the computation is running.
So kind of need an infrastructure that can hide these kinds of node failures and
let the computation go to go to completion even if nodes fail.
The second challenge of cluster computing is that
the network itself can become a bottleneck.
Now remember, there is this 1 Gbps network bandwidth.
That is available between individual nodes in a rack and
a smaller bandwidth that's available between individual racks.
Though if you have 10 TB of data, and you have to move it
across a 1 Gbps network connection, that takes approximately a day.
You can do the math and figure that out.
You know a complex computation might need to move a lot of data, and
that can slow the computation down.
So you need a framework that you know, doesn't move data around so
much while it's doing computation.
The third problem is that distributed programming can be really really hard.
Even sophisticated programmers find it hard to write distributed programs
correctly and avoid race conditions and various kinds of complications.
So here's a simple problem that hides most of the complexity of
distributed programming.
And, and makes it easy to write you know,
algorithms that can mine very massive data sets.
So we look at three problems that you know that we face when,
when we're dealing with cluster computing.
And, Map-Reduce addresses all three of these challenges.
Right? First of all,
the first problem that we saw was that, was one of persistence and
availability of nodes can fade.
The Map-Reduce model addresses this problem by storing data redundantly on
multiple nodes.
The same data is stored on multiple nodes so that even if you lose one of
those nodes, the data is still available on another node.
The second problem that we saw was one of network bottlenecks.
And this happens when you move around data a lot.
What the Map-Reduce model does is it moves the computation close to the data.
And avoids copying data around the network.
And this minimizes the network bottle neck problem.
And thirdly, the Map-Reduce model also provides a very
simple programming model that hides the complexity of all the online magic.
So let's look at each of these pieces in turn.
The first piece is the redundant storage infrastructure.
Now redundant storage is provided by what's called a distributed file system.
Now distributed file system is a file system that stores data you know,
across a cluster, but stores each piece of data multiple times.
So, the distributed file system provides a global file namespace.
It provides redundancy and availability.
There are multiple implementations of distributed file systems.
Google's GFS is or Google File System, or GFS is one example.
Hadoop's HDFS is another example.
And these are the two most popular distributed file systems out there.
Our typical usage pattern that these distributed file systems are optimized for
is huge files.
That are in the 100s to, of GB to TB.
But the, even though the files are really huge,
the data is very rarely updated in place.
Right, once, once data is written you know it's, it's very, very often.
But when it's updated, it's updated through appends.
It's never updated in place.
And for example let, let, imagine the Google scenario once again.
When Google encounters a new webpage it, it adds the webpage to a depository.
Doesn't ever go and
update the content of the webpage that it already has crawled, right?
So a typical usage pattern consists of writing the data once,
reading it multiple times and appending to it occasionally.
Lets go into the hood of a distributed file system to see how it actually works.
Data is kept in chunks that are spread across machines.
So if you take any file, the file is divided into chunks, and
these chunks are spread across multiple machines.
So the machines themselves are called chunk servers in this context.
So here's, here's an example.
There are multiple multiple chunks servers.
Chunk server 1, 2, 3, and 4.
And here's the file 1.
And file 1 is divided into six chunks in this case, C0, C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5.
And these chunks as you can see four of the chunks happen to be on Chunk server 1.
One of them is on Chunks server 2 and, one of them is on Chunks server 3.
Now this is not sufficient.
You actually have to store multiple copies of each of these chunks and so
we replicate these chunks so here copy, here is a copy of C1.
On Chunk server 2, a copy of C2 in Chunk server 3, and so on.
So each chunk, in this case is replicated twice.
And if you notice carefully you'll see that replicas of
a chunk are never on the same chunk server.
They're always on different chunks of, so
C1 has one replica on Chunk server 1 and one on Chunk server 2.
C0 has one on Chunk server 1, and one on Chunk server N, and so on.
And here is here is another file, D.
D has two chunks, D0 and D1.
And that's replicated twice.
And so and so that's stored on different chunks server [INAUDIBLE].
Now so, so you serve you serve from chunk files and
store them on, on these, on these chunk servers.
Now we turn some of the chunk servers, also act as compute servers.
And when, whenever your computation has to access data.
That computation is actually scheduled on the chunk server that
actually contains the data.
This way you avoid moving data to where the computation needs to run,
but instead you move the computation to where the data is.
And that's how you put a wide under the city data movement in the system.
This isn't clear when you look at look at some examples.
So the sum of this, each file is split into contiguous chunks.
And the chunks are typically 16 to 64 MB in in size.
On each chunk is replicated,
in our example we saw each chunk replicated twice.
But it could be 2x or 3x replication.
3x is the most common.
And we saw that the chunks were actually kept on different chunk servers.
But, but when you replicate 3x, you know, the system usually makes an effort.
To keep at least one replica in a entirely different rack if possible and
why do we do that?
We do that because it's you know,
the most common scenario is that a single node can fail.
But it's also possible that the switch on a rack can fail, and
when the switch on a rack fails, the entire rack becomes inaccessible.
And then if you have all the chunks for a, for in all the replicas of a chunk in
one rack then that whole chunk can become inaccessible.
So if you keep replicas of a chunk on different racks then even if
a switch fails then it can still access that chunk.
Right so the system tries to make sure that,
that the replicas of a chunk are actually kept on different racks.
The second component of a distributed file system is, is a master node.
Now the master node is also known as the, it's called a master node in
the Google file system, it's a called a Name Node in Hadoop's HDFS.
But the master node stores metadata about where the files are stored.
And for
example, if my you know, it'll know that file one is divided into six chunks.
And here is, here are the locations of each of the six chunks, and
here are the locations of the replicas.
And the master node itself may be replicated because otherwise it
might become a single point of failure.
The final component of a distributed file system is a client library.
Now, when the, when a client, or, or an algorithm that needs to
access the data tries to access a file it goes through the client library.
The client library talks to the master and
finds the chunk servers that actually store the chunks.
And once that's done the client is directly connected to the chunk servers.
Where it can access the data without going through the master nodes.
So the data access actually happens in peer-to-peer fashion without going
through the master node
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62 Folder Collection
Amy.Lin published on August 25, 2017
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