Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at the adverb clause. Okay? Now, this is one of the dependent clauses that we're going to look at. I also have a lesson about noun clauses and adjective clauses. I have a lesson about the independent clause, which is different from all of these. Today we're looking at the adverb clause, which depends on the grammar book you're using. Again, they like to use different words. Some people call this the subordinate clause. "Subordinate" meaning under. Right? "Sub" means under, it's under the independent clause, means it's... The independent clause is the more important one, the subordinate clause is the second. Now, the thing to remember about adverb clauses: What makes them different from noun clauses or adjective clauses is that they don't modify words. Okay? A noun clause modifies or acts as a specific function to something in the independent clause. It could be the subject, it could be the object of the verb, for example. Or it could be a complement. But it's always working with some other word in the independent clause. The adjective clause-excuse me-always modifies or identifies a noun in the sentence, in the clause, etc. The adverb clause shows a relationship, and that's very, very important to remember because the subordinate conjunctions, the words that join the clause to the independent clause has a very specific function. The two clauses, the independent clause and the subordinate clause have a very distinct relationship. Okay? So here are some of those relationships: Reason, contrast, condition, time, purpose, and comparison. Okay? There are others, but we're going to focus on these because these are the more common ones. And there are many conjunctions, but I'm only going to give you a few here just so you have an idea how the adverb clause works. Okay? So, for example, when we're looking at reason... Okay? Before I give you actual sentence examples, I'm going to talk to you about the conjunctions. These are called the subordinate conjunctions. They very clearly show the relationship between the clauses, so you have to remember that. So: "because", okay? "Because" means reason. So, I did something because I had to do it. Okay? So: "I did something"-independent clause-"because"-why?-"I had to do it". I had no choice. That's the relationship between the two. "Since" can also mean "because". "Since", of course, can also mean since the beginning of something, since a time, but it can also mean "because" when we're using it as an adverb clause conjunction. Contrast. "Contrast" means to show that there's a difference. Now, it could be yes/no, positive/negative, but it doesn't have to be. It could be one idea and then a contrasting idea. One expectation, and one completely different result. Okay? You have to be very careful not to look for a positive or a negative verb, or a positive or negative anything else, but we're going to look at examples for that. The more common conjunctions for that is: "although" or "though"-both are okay, mean the same thing-or "whereas". Okay? "Although I am very rich, I can't afford to buy a Lamborghini." Okay? So, "rich" means lots of money. "Can't afford" means not enough money. Contrasting ideas. They're a little bit opposite from what one expects. Contrast, reason. Condition. "Condition" means one thing must be true for something else to be true. So, for the part of the independent clause to be true-the situation, the action, the event, whatever-then the condition must first be true. "If I were a... If I were a rich man, I would buy a Lamborghini." But I'm... Even though I am a rich man... Although I am a rich man, I can't afford one. So we use "if", "as long as". Again, there are others. Time. This is another relationship. When did something happen? We use "when", we use "while", we use other conjunctions as well. "I will call you when I get home." So this call that I will make to you will happen at the time that I get home. That's the relationship between the two. Purpose. "I asked my boss for a pay raise so that I could afford my Lamborghini." Which I can't afford now. Comparison, if I want to compare two things. Now, you have to be very careful with comparisons because they don't always have to take a clause. But if you're comparing clause to clause, if you're comparing action to action, then you must use a comparison conjunction with an adverb clause to show. So: "I am not as able to do this as she is." Right? "I am not as able as she"-subject-"is", verb. Comparing two situations, two actions, etc. So now that we see some of the relationships we can use and some of the conjunctions we can use, let's look at some sentence examples to see how this works. Okay, let's look at some examples now. I'm going to show you some dos and don'ts; things you should do, things you should not do. But again, everything has an exception, we'll talk about that. Let's look at three independent clauses. "I love pizza." Very simple. "I love pizza.", "I rarely eat it." I very, very seldom... I almost never eat pizza. "It's unhealthy." "It" being pizza. Now, I want to combine all of these things together, but I want to make sure that there's a relationship between these two and this one, maybe even this one. Okay? "Although I love pizza," so right away you're expecting a contrast. "I love pizza." So you're thinking if I love pizza, I eat it every day. Right? Well, right away you understand probably not. There's going to be a contrast coming up. "I rarely eat it". I love it, I rarely eat it. It doesn't make sense. They're opposites. Well, there's your opposite conjunction. Why do I rarely eat it? "...because it's unhealthy." So, I rarely eat it even though I love it, there's your contrast, because... There's your reason and why rarely eat. Okay? I have a contrast between how I feel about pizza and how often I eat it. I have a reason of why I rarely eat it because it's unhealthy. So this sentence is perfect, everything works well together. Another thing to keep in mind: One sentence can have many adverb clauses. As many relationships as you need, you can put into a sentence. Again, once your sentence gets too long with too many clauses going on, then you're starting to get a little bit confusing to your reader. Now, another thing I want to mention: You'll notice the comma here. Generally speaking, when you begin a sentence with an adverb clause... Generally speaking, you're going to put a comma. Now, in today's writing, more and more writers don't like commas. If they can avoid it... If I can take it out and still make sense, and it's still very clear and very easy to understand what's going on, take it out. If you're not sure, if you're starting a sentence with an adverb, just put a comma at the end of the adverb clause before your independent clause. When you get into mixed sentences where you have clauses inside clauses, then it starts becoming more confusing, but it's still very logical, but I'll do that in a separate lesson. Embedded clauses that everything sort of mixes up together. You have all three clauses in one sentence. It's a little confusing. Let's look at this sentence: "I rarely eat pizza, although I love it, because it's unhealthy." Now, if you're saying this sentence, if you're speaking it, no problem, the person will understand you. This is not a good sentence to write out, in written English. Why? Because sometimes you want to place your clauses in a relationship that makes sense. "I rarely eat pizza, although I love it", okay, no problem. But if I put: "because it's unhealthy", now, the "because" is about the rarely eat, not about the "I love it". I don't love it because it's unhealthy. I love it because it... Well, it's delicious. I don't eat it because it's unhealthy. So you have to be very careful about positioning your adverb clauses. Make sure that the relationship makes sense. In this case, because this one is connected to this... To this clause, it seems to go together and it seems to show the relationship there. Again, when you're speaking it, then you will say: "I rarely eat pizza, although I love it, because it's unhealthy." So then to the person listening, this goes with this. This is the actual sentence, and this is an aside. But very difficult to make a reader understand that. So go with the logical connections, try to put adverb clauses... Or try to put clauses together so that the relationship is very clear. Okay? Now, let's look at this one. Just I want to drive this home about the relationship. It's so important to understand the relationships between clauses. "Although I love pizza I eat it often." Now, does this sentence make sense? No, of course not. Because the reader or even the listener in this case, as soon as the reader or listener hears this word they're listening for two opposite things, two contrasting ideas, or actions, or whatever the case. So: "love", good; "eat often", good. Positive, positive. There's no contrast. Right? So the thing you have to remember... So, what's the relationship here? "Because". "Because I love pizza I eat it often." Notice here I didn't put the comma. With "because", very uncommon to use the comma, but again, you could. You don't need to because it's very clear, the relationship. It's very clear you have two separate clauses here. Leave it out, it's fine. Okay. Let's look at some more examples. Okay, a couple more notes I want to mention. Usually adverb clauses can go-excuse me-at the beginning of a sentence, or in the middle, or at the end, etc. You can put it pretty much anywhere. However, in some cases it's recommended to put it in the middle after the independent clause. So, for example: "Joe took a week off work so that his wife could take a training course." So he took a week off for the purpose of giving his wife time. Now, can I begin this sentence: "So that his wife could take a training course, Joe took a week off work"? Can I say that? Yes. Do I want to say that? No. I would rather start with this, because the purpose first of all is more important than what he did. Okay? Unless I want to stress the time off, then I would switch it. But generally, with "so that", I always put the actual purpose second and the first action first, because you always do something... It's like cause and effect. Why do you do this? For this purpose. So it has a logical flow. But again, you don't have to, you could put it at beginning, put the comma, finish it off, perfectly okay. Now, one last thing I want to mention. You can have sentences that have adverb clauses within adverb clauses. It can be a little bit confusing, but again, as long as you make sure you understand the relationships between all the pieces, it works out. "You should stay home because if you go there there will be trouble." Okay? You should stay home because there will be trouble. But there will only be trouble if you go. So, basically, what am I doing here? I'm emphasizing the first part: Stay home. If you don't stay home, there will be trouble. So you should stay home because if you don't there will be trouble. Right? So here the confusing part for some people is: "because if". You have two conjunctions. Right? So, basically, what is going on here: This whole thing is the reason. Okay? "You should stay home". Now, the thing you want to do, you want to count your subjects and verbs. Subject: "You should stay". Okay? That's one clause. "Because there will be", subject and verb. Well, subject... Sorry, this is the conjunction and verb, and subject and verb. As long as you have different clauses, each of these conjunctions... This conjunction has a clause, this conjunction has a clause. They both work, they both work together. "Because there will be trouble" is too general. "Because if you go there will be trouble". I want to emphasize the going, which is why you should stay home. Okay? So it works.