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  • Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com.

  • I'm Adam.

  • In today's lesson we're going to look at the adverb clause.

  • Okay?

  • Now, this is one of the dependent clauses that we're going to look at.

  • I also have a lesson about noun clauses and adjective clauses.

  • I have a lesson about the independent clause, which is different from all of these.

  • Today we're looking at the adverb clause, which depends on the grammar book you're using.

  • Again, they like to use different words.

  • Some people call this the subordinate clause.

  • "Subordinate" meaning under. Right?

  • "Sub" means under, it's under the independent clause, means it's...

  • The independent clause is the more important one, the subordinate clause is the second.

  • Now, the thing to remember about adverb clauses: What makes them different from noun clauses

  • or adjective clauses is that they don't modify words.

  • Okay?

  • A noun clause modifies or acts as a specific function to something in the independent clause.

  • It could be the subject, it could be the object of the verb, for example.

  • Or it could be a complement.

  • But it's always working with some other word in the independent clause.

  • The adjective clause-excuse me-always modifies or identifies a noun in the sentence,

  • in the clause, etc.

  • The adverb clause shows a relationship, and that's very, very important to remember because

  • the subordinate conjunctions, the words that join the clause to the independent clause

  • has a very specific function.

  • The two clauses, the independent clause and the subordinate clause have a very distinct

  • relationship.

  • Okay?

  • So here are some of those relationships: Reason, contrast, condition, time, purpose, and comparison.

  • Okay?

  • There are others, but we're going to focus on these because these are the more common ones.

  • And there are many conjunctions, but I'm only going to give you a few here just so you have

  • an idea how the adverb clause works.

  • Okay?

  • So, for example, when we're looking at reason...

  • Okay? Before I give you actual sentence examples, I'm going to talk to you about the conjunctions.

  • These are called the subordinate conjunctions.

  • They very clearly show the relationship between the clauses, so you have to remember that.

  • So: "because", okay?

  • "Because" means reason.

  • So, I did something because I had to do it.

  • Okay? So: "I did something"-independent clause-"because"-why?-"I had to do it".

  • I had no choice.

  • That's the relationship between the two.

  • "Since" can also mean "because".

  • "Since", of course, can also mean since the beginning of something, since a time, but

  • it can also mean "because" when we're using it as an adverb clause conjunction.

  • Contrast.

  • "Contrast" means to show that there's a difference.

  • Now, it could be yes/no, positive/negative, but it doesn't have to be.

  • It could be one idea and then a contrasting idea.

  • One expectation, and one completely different result.

  • Okay?

  • You have to be very careful not to look for a positive or a negative verb, or a positive

  • or negative anything else, but we're going to look at examples for that.

  • The more common conjunctions for that is: "although" or "though"-both are okay,

  • mean the same thing-or "whereas".

  • Okay?

  • "Although I am very rich, I can't afford to buy a Lamborghini."

  • Okay?

  • So, "rich" means lots of money.

  • "Can't afford" means not enough money.

  • Contrasting ideas.

  • They're a little bit opposite from what one expects.

  • Contrast, reason.

  • Condition.

  • "Condition" means one thing must be true for something else to be true.

  • So, for the part of the independent clause to be true-the situation, the action, the

  • event, whatever-then the condition must first be true.

  • "If I were a...

  • If I were a rich man, I would buy a Lamborghini."

  • But I'm...

  • Even though I am a rich man...

  • Although I am a rich man, I can't afford one.

  • So we use "if", "as long as".

  • Again, there are others.

  • Time.

  • This is another relationship.

  • When did something happen?

  • We use "when", we use "while", we use other conjunctions as well.

  • "I will call you when I get home."

  • So this call that I will make to you will happen at the time that I get home.

  • That's the relationship between the two.

  • Purpose.

  • "I asked my boss for a pay raise so that I could afford my Lamborghini."

  • Which I can't afford now.

  • Comparison, if I want to compare two things.

  • Now, you have to be very careful with comparisons because they don't always have to take a clause.

  • But if you're comparing clause to clause, if you're comparing action to action, then

  • you must use a comparison conjunction with an adverb clause to show.

  • So: "I am not as able to do this as she is."

  • Right?

  • "I am not as able as she"-subject-"is", verb.

  • Comparing two situations, two actions, etc.

  • So now that we see some of the relationships we can use and some of the conjunctions we

  • can use, let's look at some sentence examples to see how this works.

  • Okay, let's look at some examples now.

  • I'm going to show you some dos and don'ts; things you should do, things you should not

  • do.

  • But again, everything has an exception, we'll talk about that.

  • Let's look at three independent clauses.

  • "I love pizza."

  • Very simple.

  • "I love pizza.", "I rarely eat it."

  • I very, very seldom...

  • I almost never eat pizza.

  • "It's unhealthy."

  • "It" being pizza.

  • Now, I want to combine all of these things together, but I want to make sure that there's

  • a relationship between these two and this one, maybe even this one. Okay?

  • "Although I love pizza," so right away you're expecting a contrast.

  • "I love pizza."

  • So you're thinking if I love pizza, I eat it every day. Right?

  • Well, right away you understand probably not.

  • There's going to be a contrast coming up.

  • "I rarely eat it".

  • I love it, I rarely eat it.

  • It doesn't make sense. They're opposites.

  • Well, there's your opposite conjunction.

  • Why do I rarely eat it? "...because it's unhealthy."

  • So, I rarely eat it even though I love it, there's your contrast, because...

  • There's your reason and why rarely eat.

  • Okay?

  • I have a contrast between how I feel about pizza and how often I eat it.

  • I have a reason of why I rarely eat it because it's unhealthy.

  • So this sentence is perfect, everything works well together.

  • Another thing to keep in mind: One sentence can have many adverb clauses.

  • As many relationships as you need, you can put into a sentence.

  • Again, once your sentence gets too long with too many clauses going on, then you're starting

  • to get a little bit confusing to your reader.

  • Now, another thing I want to mention: You'll notice the comma here.

  • Generally speaking, when you begin a sentence with an adverb clause...

  • Generally speaking, you're going to put a comma.

  • Now, in today's writing, more and more writers don't like commas.

  • If they can avoid it...

  • If I can take it out and still make sense, and it's still very clear and very easy to

  • understand what's going on, take it out.

  • If you're not sure, if you're starting a sentence with an adverb, just put a comma at the end

  • of the adverb clause before your independent clause.

  • When you get into mixed sentences where you have clauses inside clauses, then it starts

  • becoming more confusing, but it's still very logical, but I'll do that in a separate lesson.

  • Embedded clauses that everything sort of mixes up together.

  • You have all three clauses in one sentence.

  • It's a little confusing.

  • Let's look at this sentence: "I rarely eat pizza, although I love it, because it's unhealthy."

  • Now, if you're saying this sentence, if you're speaking it, no problem, the person will understand you.

  • This is not a good sentence to write out, in written English.

  • Why?

  • Because sometimes you want to place your clauses in a relationship that makes sense.

  • "I rarely eat pizza, although I love it", okay, no problem.

  • But if I put: "because it's unhealthy", now, the "because" is about the rarely eat, not

  • about the "I love it".

  • I don't love it because it's unhealthy.

  • I love it because it...

  • Well, it's delicious.

  • I don't eat it because it's unhealthy.

  • So you have to be very careful about positioning your adverb clauses.

  • Make sure that the relationship makes sense.

  • In this case, because this one is connected to this...

  • To this clause, it seems to go together and it seems to show the relationship there.

  • Again, when you're speaking it, then you will say:

  • "I rarely eat pizza, although I love it, because it's unhealthy."

  • So then to the person listening, this goes with this.

  • This is the actual sentence, and this is an aside.

  • But very difficult to make a reader understand that.

  • So go with the logical connections, try to put adverb clauses...

  • Or try to put clauses together so that the relationship is very clear.

  • Okay?

  • Now, let's look at this one.

  • Just I want to drive this home about the relationship.

  • It's so important to understand the relationships between clauses.

  • "Although I love pizza I eat it often."

  • Now, does this sentence make sense?

  • No, of course not.

  • Because the reader or even the listener in this case, as soon as the reader or listener

  • hears this word they're listening for two opposite things, two contrasting ideas, or

  • actions, or whatever the case.

  • So: "love", good; "eat often", good.

  • Positive, positive.

  • There's no contrast.

  • Right?

  • So the thing you have to remember...

  • So, what's the relationship here?

  • "Because".

  • "Because I love pizza I eat it often."

  • Notice here I didn't put the comma.

  • With "because", very uncommon to use the comma, but again, you could.

  • You don't need to because it's very clear, the relationship.

  • It's very clear you have two separate clauses here.

  • Leave it out, it's fine.

  • Okay.

  • Let's look at some more examples.

  • Okay, a couple more notes I want to mention.

  • Usually adverb clauses can go-excuse me-at the beginning of a sentence, or in the middle,

  • or at the end, etc.

  • You can put it pretty much anywhere.

  • However, in some cases it's recommended to put it in the middle

  • after the independent clause.

  • So, for example: "Joe took a week off work so that his wife could take a training course."

  • So he took a week off for the purpose of giving his wife time.

  • Now, can I begin this sentence:

  • "So that his wife could take a training course, Joe took a week off work"?

  • Can I say that? Yes.

  • Do I want to say that?

  • No.

  • I would rather start with this, because the purpose first of all is more important than

  • what he did.

  • Okay?

  • Unless I want to stress the time off, then I would switch it.

  • But generally, with "so that", I always put the actual purpose second and the first action

  • first, because you always do something...

  • It's like cause and effect.

  • Why do you do this?

  • For this purpose.

  • So it has a logical flow.

  • But again, you don't have to, you could put it at beginning, put the comma, finish it off,

  • perfectly okay.

  • Now, one last thing I want to mention.

  • You can have sentences that have adverb clauses within adverb clauses.

  • It can be a little bit confusing, but again, as long as you make sure you understand the

  • relationships between all the pieces, it works out.

  • "You should stay home because if you go there there will be trouble."

  • Okay?

  • You should stay home because there will be trouble.

  • But there will only be trouble if you go.

  • So, basically, what am I doing here?

  • I'm emphasizing the first part: Stay home.

  • If you don't stay home, there will be trouble.

  • So you should stay home because if you don't there will be trouble. Right?

  • So here the confusing part for some people is: "because if".

  • You have two conjunctions.

  • Right?

  • So, basically, what is going on here: This whole thing is the reason.

  • Okay?

  • "You should stay home". Now, the thing you want to do,

  • you want to count your subjects and verbs.

  • Subject: "You should stay".

  • Okay?

  • That's one clause.

  • "Because there will be", subject and verb.

  • Well, subject...

  • Sorry, this is the conjunction and verb, and subject and verb.

  • As long as you have different clauses, each of these conjunctions...

  • This conjunction has a clause, this conjunction has a clause.

  • They both work, they both work together.

  • "Because there will be trouble" is too general.

  • "Because if you go there will be trouble".

  • I want to emphasize the going, which is why you should stay home.

  • Okay?

  • So it works.