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Ghost in the Shell is a Japanese media franchise originally published as a seinen manga series
of the same name written and illustrated by Masamune Shirow. The manga, first serialized
in 1989 under the subtitle of The Ghost in the Shell, and later published as its own
tankōbon volumes by Kodansha, told the story of the fictional counter-cyberterrorist organization
Public Security Section 9, led by protagonist Major Motoko Kusanagi, in the mid 21st century
of Japan. Animation studio Production I.G has produced
several different anime adaptations of Ghost in the Shell, starting with the 1995 film
of the same name, telling the story of Section 9's investigation of the Puppet Master. The
television series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex followed in 2002, telling an
alternate story from the manga and first film, featuring Section 9's investigations of government
corruption in the Laughing Man and Individual Eleven incidents. The year 2013 saw the start
of the Ghost in the Shell: Arise film series with the release of the first two episodes.
The third episode of the four-part series is set to be released on June 28, 2014.
Title Shirow has stated that he had always wanted
the title of his manga to be "GHOST IN THE SHELL", even in Japan, but his original publishers
preferred Kōkaku Kidōtai. He had chosen "Ghost in the Shell" in homage to Arthur Koestler's
The Ghost in the Machine, from which he also drew inspiration.
Setting
Primarily set in the mid-twenty-first century in the fictional Japanese city of Niihama,
Niihama Prefecture, otherwise known as New Port City, the manga and the many anime adaptations
follow the members of Public Security Section 9, a special-operations task-force made up
of former military officers and police detectives. Political intrigue and counter-terrorism operations
are standard fare for Section 9, but the various actions of corrupt officials, companies, and
cyber-criminals in each scenario are unique and require the diverse skills of Section
9's staff to prevent a series of incidents from escalating.
In this post-cyberpunk iteration of a possible future, computer technology has advanced to
the point that many members of the public possess cyberbrains, technology that allows
them to interface their biological brain with various networks. The level of cyberization
varies from simple minimal interfaces to almost complete replacement of the brain with cybernetic
parts, in cases of severe trauma. This can also be combined with various levels of prostheses,
with a fully prosthetic body enabling a person to become a cyborg. The heroine of Ghost in
the Shell, Major Motoko Kusanagi, is such a cyborg, having had a terrible accident befall
her as a child that ultimately required that she use a full-body prosthesis to house her
cyberbrain. This high level of cyberization, however, opens the brain up to attacks from
highly skilled hackers, with the most dangerous being those who will hack a person to bend
to their whims. Media
Original manga
The Ghost in the Shell originally ran from April 1989 to November 1990 in Kodansha's
manga anthology Young Magazine, and was released in tankobon format on October 2, 1991. Ghost
in the Shell 2: Man-Machine Interface ran in Young Magazine from September 1991 to August
1997. Four chapters that were not released in tankobon format from previous releases
were later collected into a single volume titled Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error
Processor serving as an interquel. The manga was published on July 23, 2003 by Kodansha.
Several art books have also been published for the manga.
Animated films
Two animated films based on the original manga have been released, both directed by Mamoru
Oshii and animated by Production I.G. Ghost in the Shell was released in 1995 and follows
the "Puppet Master" storyline from the manga. It was re-released in 2008 as Ghost in the
Shell 2.0 with new audio and updated 3D computer graphics in certain scenes. Innocence, otherwise
known as Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, was released in 2004, with its story based
on a chapter from Man-Machine Interface. Video games
Ghost in the Shell was developed by Exact and released for the PlayStation on July 17,
1997, in Japan by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is a third-person shooter featuring an
original storyline where the character plays a rookie member of Section 9. The video game's
soundtrack Megatech Body features various electronica artists.
Several video games were also developed to tie into the Stand Alone Complex television
series. Live-action adaptation
In 2008, DreamWorks and Steven Spielberg acquired the rights to produce a live-action film adaptation
of the original manga. Avi Arad, Ari Arad, and Steven Paul were later confirmed as producers,
with Jamie Moss to write the screenplay. In October, 2009, it was announced that Laeta
Kalogridis had replaced Moss as writer. On January 24, 2014, it was reported that Rupert
Sanders will direct the film, with a screenplay by William Wheeler.
Stand Alone Complex
In 2002, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex premiered on Animax, presenting a new telling
of Ghost in the Shell independent from the original manga, focusing on Section 9's investigation
of the Laughing Man hacker. It was followed in 2004 by a second season titled Ghost in
the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG, which focused on the Individual Eleven terrorist group. Both
seasons' primary storylines were compressed into OVAs broadcast as Ghost in the Shell:
Stand Alone Complex The Laughing Man in 2005 and Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex
Individual Eleven in 2006. Also in 2006, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - Solid
State Society, featuring Section 9's confrontation with a hacker known as the Puppeteer, was
broadcast, serving as a finale to the anime series. The extensive score for the series
and its films was composed by Yoko Kanno. In addition to the anime, a series of published
books, two separate manga adaptations, and several video games for consoles and mobile
phones have been released for Stand Alone Complex. An MMORPG has also been in development
for several years. Arise
Ghost in the Shell: Arise is another animated iteration that takes place in yet another
alternate setting, set before the original manga. It is being released as a series of
OVAs, with Kazuchika Kise as chief director and Tow Ubukata as head writer. Cornelius
was brought onto the project to compose the score for the OVAs. A manga adaptation began
serialization in Kodansha's Young Magazine's April 2013 issue, released March 13, 2013.
Notes
References
External links Madman Entertainment's Australian distribution
release site
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Ghost in the Shell

313 Folder Collection
許祐綸 published on December 18, 2016
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