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  • Prof: Now what I'd like to do is something that you'll

  • probably cut out because of copyright issues but it's a kind

  • of fun warm-up anyway, so we're going to go ahead and

  • do this and then we'll actually start.

  • I got about a one-minute warm-up here,

  • ladies and gentlemen, and we've got Lynda Paul who's

  • like a Vegas show act.

  • Okay?

  • She's going to warm us up and we're going to get up and we're

  • going to get into it here right off the bat in our exploration

  • of duple and triple meter so here we go, Lynda Paul.

  • Lynda Paul: All right.

  • Those of you in my section will already be familiar with this.

  • Don't give the game away.

  • Everybody stand up.

  • Sorry.

  • Prof: It'll be worth it.

  • Lynda Paul: It's worth it.

  • All right.

  • You have two moves.

  • For the duple meter, you have the march.

  • You may have to turn to the side.

  • Prof: It's okay.

  • They can march.

  • Lynda Paul: And it just goes like this,

  • Feel the duple.

  • Prof: Which foot gets the down beat,

  • right or left?

  • Lynda Paul: Left.

  • Always left.

  • Prof: Okay.

  • Sorry.

  • Didn't know.

  • Lynda Paul: And if you hear a triple,

  • your step is this: down-up-up, down-up-up,

  • down- up-up, down-up-up.

  • This is to get the feel of the duple and the triple.

  • So see what you can do.

  • Prof: You can do this on your test too.

  • >

  • They've got it.

  • >

  • Okay. We got that.

  • >

  • Okay.

  • So that's our warm-up for today.

  • Now from the ridiculous to the sublime, we're going to go to

  • our first slide.

  • And that takes us to the question of sound.

  • We have never really nailed this down, I don't think.

  • When an instrument--any instrument--the piano,

  • plays a note <<plays note>>

  • what you hear is one fundamental pitch.

  • You are also hearing very small amounts of other pitches.

  • Usually, these get charted out into the so-called overtones,

  • thirty-two partials or overtones, and you can see them

  • playing out here .

  • The amount of force in each of those partials--

  • we'll call it the amplitude--of each of the partials,

  • varies according to the acoustical properties of a

  • particular instrument, so that each of these peaks

  • here represents a particular partial,

  • but you can see that they do not decline in any kind of

  • straight decline.

  • Some of them bump up from time to time--more push there,

  • more volume there.

  • So when we hear any particular sound,

  • again, we're hearing an amalgam of many sounds,

  • and the importance of each of these partials in the aggregate

  • of sound is what gives it its particular color.

  • If you've ever worked with a synthesizer: I think,

  • in very simple terms here, what an electronic synthesizer

  • does is play with these.

  • They can push down the seventh partial.

  • They can bring up the ninth partial.

  • They can push down the^( )thirteenth partial and bring up

  • the fifteenth and thereby change the sound of a clarinet into a

  • French horn.

  • They play with these partials on each of these notes,

  • but this is just <<plays note>>

  • one sound with all of these other things mixed in to the

  • medley that produces the quality or timbre of a particular

  • instrument.

  • Okay. That's that point.

  • Now we're going to go on and review a few things that we

  • talked about last lecture.

  • Remember we were talking about beat, which is the regular

  • pulse, the pulse of life, the pulse of music,

  • that comes at regular intervals.

  • We were talking about the subdivision of that pulse,

  • the organizing of that pulse into meters,

  • and that we had this capacity to indicate what the meter was

  • by these numbers: two-four,

  • and three-four for duple and triple meter.

  • Remember we were just demonstrating,

  • listening to the Ravel Bolero.

  • Then we had rhythms superimposed.

  • We had two prominent rhythms up above.

  • Rhythm is simply these patterns, usually repeating

  • patterns, of longs and short that get superimposed as they

  • set up above the basic beat underneath.

  • We also learned from Ravel's Bolero that nobody

  • actually plays the beat-- that's too basic--but our mind,

  • hearing all of these complex rhythms,

  • extrapolates the beat from this complexity.

  • Okay, that by way of a quick review.

  • Now two other terms that we have touched on.

  • What's tempo in music?

  • Yes, gentleman?

  • Student: The pace or the speed of the piece?

  • Prof: It's the pace or speed of the--

  • Student: Piece.

  • Prof: --of the piece, particularly the beat.

  • The beat will do--control--that,

  • so it's the pace or speed of the beat.

  • Thanks very much.

  • We can take a particular--Here I'm conducting in three:

  • one, two, three, one,

  • two, three, one, two,

  • three, one, two, three, one, two,

  • three, and obviously I'm accelerating

  • there.

  • We use the fancy Italian term "accelerando"

  • for that.

  • We could be going with a very fast tempo, three,

  • one, two, three, one, two, three,

  • one, two, three, and slow it down.

  • Obviously, we would be retarding the music,

  • ritardando or a retard at that particular point.

  • All right.

  • With that by the way of background, let's go on to

  • two--what we might call rhythmic devices here--two rhythmic

  • devices.

  • The first is syncopation.

  • We worked a little bit with this last time.

  • For syncopation, let's go to the board over

  • here.

  • If we have a particular rhythm, and this is a rhythm,

  • and here are the beats and the meter underneath,

  • we would be coming along one, two-and,

  • one, two,>.

  • Okay.

  • Obviously, this is the bar of syncopation--we did this in

  • section last week--but you can see >

  • this note is the syncopated note.

  • It's jumping in too early.

  • We expect it to sound there.

  • So what syncopation is is simply the insertion of an

  • impulse, a "hit" if you will,

  • at a metrical place that we do not expect it to be.

  • Usually, the metrical impulse is on the beat.

  • With syncopation the impulse can come suddenly off the beat,

  • and it gives it a little snap or jazzy aspect to the music.

  • We talked about that in the Cole Porter last time.

  • Here is one I remember.

  • A couple of years ago there was a clothing store called TJ Maxx.

  • They had this little jingle out there, >

  • , just a little bit of this, and then you were supposed to

  • say, "TJ Maxx."

  • I'll remember TJ Maxx forever because of this guy's little

  • syncopation.

  • It's in there.

  • We really remember these musical .

  • Think about back in your childhood, your nursery rhymes,

  • the capacity of aural material to be retained.

  • Okay.

  • >

  • Here's beat two.

  • It jumps in too early.

  • This actually I think derives from a Greek word,

  • "synkope," s-y-n-k-o-p-e,

  • synkope.

  • Is that how you pronounce it?

  • But it means to cut short, to cut short and therefore get

  • in a little bit earlier.

  • Now the master of syncopation, of course, in music was Scott