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  • We're going to go on a dive to the deep sea,

  • and anyone that's had that lovely opportunity

  • knows that for about two and half hours on the way down,

  • it's a perfectly positively pitch-black world.

  • And we used to see the most mysterious animals out the window

  • that you couldn't describe:

  • these blinking lights -- a world of bioluminescence, like fireflies.

  • Dr. Edith Widder -- she's now at the Ocean Research and Conservation Association --

  • was able to come up with a camera

  • that could capture some of these incredible animals,

  • and that's what you're seeing here on the screen.

  • That's all bioluminescence. Like I said: just like fireflies.

  • There's a flying turkey under a tree.

  • (Laughter)

  • I'm a geologist by training.

  • But I love that.

  • And you see, some of the bioluminescence they use to avoid being eaten,

  • some they use to attract prey,

  • but all of it, from an artistic point of view,

  • is just positively amazing.

  • And a lot of what goes on inside --

  • There's a fish with glowing eyes, pulsating eyes.

  • Some of the colors are designed to hypnotize,

  • these lovely patterns.

  • And then this last one,

  • one of my favorites, this pinwheel design.

  • Just absolutely amazing, every single dive.

  • That's the unknown world, and today we've only explored

  • about 3 percent of what's out there in the ocean.

  • Already we've found the world's highest mountains,

  • the world's deepest valleys,

  • underwater lakes, underwater waterfalls --

  • a lot of that we shared with you from the stage.

  • And in a place where we thought no life at all,

  • we find more life, we think, and diversity and density

  • than the tropical rainforest,

  • which tells us that we don't know much about this planet at all.

  • There's still 97 percent,

  • and either that 97 percent is empty or just full of surprises.

  • But I want to jump up to shallow water now

  • and look at some creatures that are positively amazing.

  • Cephalopods -- head-foots.

  • As a kid I knew them as calamari, mostly.

  • (Laughter)

  • This is an octopus.

  • This is the work of Dr. Roger Hanlon at the Marine Biological Lab,

  • and it's just fascinating how cephalopods can,

  • with their incredible eyes, sense their surroundings,

  • look at light, look at patterns.

  • Here's an octopus moving across the reef,

  • finds a spot to settle down, curls up and then disappears into the background.

  • Tough thing to do.

  • In the next bit, we're going to see a couple squid.

  • Now males, when they fight,

  • if they're really aggressive, they turn white.

  • And these two males are fighting.

  • They do it by bouncing their butts together,

  • which is an interesting concept.

  • Now, here's a male on the left and a female on the right,

  • and the male has managed to split his coloration

  • so the female only always sees the kinder, gentler squid in him.

  • (Laughter)

  • Let's take a look at it again. Watch the coloration:

  • white on the right, brown on the left.

  • He takes a step back,

  • he's keeping off the other males by splitting his body,

  • and comes up on the other side --

  • Bingo!

  • Now, I'm told that's not not just a squid phenomenon with males,

  • but I don't know.

  • (Laughter)

  • Cuttlefish. I love cuttlefish.

  • This is a Giant Australian Cuttlefish.

  • And there he is, his droopy little eyes up here.

  • But they can do pretty amazing things, too.

  • Here we're going to see one backing into a crevice,

  • and watch his tentacles --

  • he just pulls them in, makes them look just like algae.

  • Disappears right into the background.

  • Positively amazing.

  • Here's two males fighting.

  • Once again, they're smart enough, these cephalopods;

  • they know not to hurt each other.

  • But look at the patterns that they can do with their skin.

  • That's an amazing thing.

  • Here's an octopus.

  • Sometimes they don't want to be seen when they move,

  • because predators can see them.

  • This guy can make himself look like a rock,

  • and, looking at his environment,

  • can actually slide across the bottom,

  • using the waves and the shadows so he can't be seen.

  • His motion blends right into the background --

  • the moving rock trick.

  • So, we're learning lots new from the shallow water.

  • Still exploring the deep, but learning lots from the shallow water.

  • There's a good reason why:

  • the shallow water's full of predators -- here's a barracuda --

  • and if you're an octopus or a cephalopod,

  • you need to really understand how to use your surroundings to hide.

  • In the next scene, you're going to see a nice coral bottom.

  • And you see that an octopus would stand out

  • very easily there if you couldn't use your camouflage,

  • use your skin to change color and texture.

  • Here's some algae in the foreground --

  • and an octopus.

  • Ain't that amazing?

  • Now, Roger spooked him, so he took off in a cloud of ink,

  • and when he lands, the octopus says, "Oh, I've been seen.

  • The best thing to do is to get as big as I can get."

  • That big brown makes his eyespot very big.

  • So, he's bluffing. Let's do it backwards.

  • I thought he was joking when he first showed it to me.

  • I thought it was all graphics. So here it is in reverse.

  • Watch the skin color; watch the skin texture.

  • Just an amazing animal, it can change color and texture

  • to match the surroundings.

  • Watch him blend right into this algae.

  • One, two, three.

  • (Applause)

  • And now he's gone, and so am I. Thank you very much.

  • (Applause)

We're going to go on a dive to the deep sea,

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【TED】David Gallo: Underwater astonishments (Underwater astonishments | David Gallo)

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    Elma Kung posted on 2016/07/08
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