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  • Hi again. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam.

  • Today's lesson is a little bit tricky. It's grammar,

  • it's conditionals, but we're going to look at "Mixed Conditionals". Now, before

  • I get into the different types of ways that you can mix tenses and the conditionals, I

  • want to do a very quick review of the conditionals that most of you learn in your ESL classes

  • or your English... Other English classes, because these are the ones that are most commonly

  • taught, and everybody, all your teachers want you to memorize these structures.

  • The problem is then you might see mixed conditionals in other places, and you get all confused. Okay?

  • I'm not going to get too deep into these, because you can find other good lessons by

  • other engVid teachers who have already covered some of these on the site. I'm just going

  • to do a quick review, and then I'll get into... Deeper into the mixed conditionals.

  • So here are the four main types of conditionals you learn:

  • "If I won the lottery, I'd buy a house."

  • So this, just so we are clear, is "would", I've contracted it to "I'd".

  • "If I won", I have simple past tense, plus "would" in the second clause, in the condition clause,

  • in the result clause.

  • "If I had known she was coming, I'd have come too." Okay?

  • Here I have the past perfect, plus "would have" plus PP, past participle verb.

  • Now, these are both unreal,

  • mean... Meaning that they are hypothetical, they are imaginary. This

  • is about a future or present unreal situation. I didn't win the lottery, I'm not buying a

  • house; this is all just imagination. This is about the past. Now, the reason it is unreal

  • is because I can't go and change the past. So, this didn't happen, and so this didn't

  • happen. This is, again, imagination, but we're looking at the past. Okay?

  • "If you boil water, it evaporates."

  • If you notice here, I have simple present verb and

  • simple present verb. This is a real conditional. It means it's true.

  • Whenever you have a fact-okay?-a result is based on this condition and it's always true...

  • By the way, "evaporates" means

  • becomes steam, it goes away. Right? If you boil water, eventually you have no more water

  • in the pot. So this is a real conditional, always true. Simple present, simple present.

  • Lastly: "If you study hard, you will pass the test." Simple present verb, "will", verb,

  • like future. So, again, this is a real situation, because this is true. If you do this, this

  • will happen as a result. So these are the ones that you mostly learn.

  • If you have any questions, again, go to www.engvid.com, find the lessons about these that can explain

  • it in more detail. But now we're going to see other situations, other sentences with

  • "if" conditionals that are not like these. Sometimes we can mix tenses, sometimes you

  • can... Sorry. Let me stop myself, here. Sometimes your teachers tell you: "Never put 'will'

  • with the 'if' clause." Well, what I'm going to show you is that sometimes, yeah, you can.

  • This is the problem with English: There's always exceptions to the rules. Today we're

  • going to look at some of those exceptions. Okay? Let's see what happens.

  • Okay. So now we're going to look at a few different types of mixtures, if you want to

  • call it that, with the "if" clauses. But before I start to show you these examples, I want

  • you to understand that these mixed conditionals are all about context. You can generally understand

  • what is going on, what the relationship between the two verbs are by looking at the context,

  • looking at the time, looking at the place, looking at the situation that's going on,

  • and should... It usually should be very clear, but in case you're wondering how to construct

  • these so you can use them yourselves, I'll show you with a few examples. Okay?

  • These are in no particular order. They're just examples, and we're going to look at them individually.

  • "If you didn't study computers in high school, you might find this course difficult."

  • So now you're thinking: "Okay, here I have a simple past. Okay? And here I have a future.

  • Well, that's a little bit confusing. Oh, how can you mix past and future?"

  • But what you have to realize is that this is a past situation that if you didn't complete something, if

  • you didn't study computers, when you... You're starting a new course today, and this course

  • is going to be very difficult for you because you don't have the previous knowledge. So,

  • a past situation has a present result. Okay? So one of the things you also need to think

  • about mixed conditionals: A lot of it is a relationship between condition and result,

  • as opposed to a condition and something happening depending on that condition. Okay? So this

  • doesn't depend on this; this is a result of this. I'm not sure if that's exactly clear.

  • When you say: "If you study hard, you will pass the test."

  • You will pass the test...

  • Your passing depends on what you did before. This doesn't depend on this. You can still

  • do well, you can still find the course easy if you didn't study hard, but there's a possibility

  • that this situation will have this result. Okay? So, simple past with future. And I use

  • "might", "might" generally talks about the future. I could use "will" as well with this.

  • So this is one example of a mixed conditional. And again, in context, you understand that

  • the person is starting this course now

  • without the background information, so it should be pretty clear.

  • Let's look at the next example.

  • "If you didn't want to buy that shirt, you shouldn't have (bought it)."

  • Like, normally, we would end the sentence here, but just so you understand

  • the complete idea. "If you didn't want to", past. When we're talking about a specific

  • situation, we're talking about the time that you bought this shirt, so it's a simple past

  • because it's a definite past time. And "shouldn't have", again, "you should not have bought it",

  • it's a present perfect about an indefinite time, which is a little bit of a weird mix

  • because in... That's you talking about your experience. When we're using the present perfect,

  • we're talking about the experience, here, we're talking about a specific action happening

  • in the past. Why did you buy it? Maybe somebody talked you into it. Okay? You didn't really

  • want to, but you did. But you shouldn't have bought it. Okay? That should have been the

  • experience that you had, but it wasn't. So, again, it's not necessarily a condition, here,

  • it's just the relationship between two ideas. One doesn't depend on the other. Okay.

  • Simple past, again, and "should not have", and again, in present perfect. Okay.

  • Let's go to the other one. "If you go, I'll go too."

  • Now you're thinking: "Well, no, it's not a mixed. Right?" Because I have a simple present,

  • and I have the "will", future.

  • But what you have to understand is that here, this is being used as a future. Okay? We're

  • using the simple present tense to talk about the future.

  • "If you go to the party next week, I will go too."

  • Okay? So, future, future. Okay? Now, another thing: real, real, real.

  • None of these are imaginary. Okay? All of this is actual real situations; we're not

  • imagining anything. So, future with simple present and future with "will".

  • Next: "If I had won the competition, I'd have a great job now."

  • So here we have, again, the present... Sorry, we have the past perfect.

  • Okay? And now, it should be: "I would have",

  • plus another verb, a past participle, a PP verb, right? But here I have only "would have".

  • "I would have", this is the main verb. This is not the "would have done", not the "have"

  • of the whole mix. Right? This is its own verb. If you want, I'll give you another one:

  • "I'd land a great job now". "Land" means get. It's another way to say... When you get a job,

  • you land a good job. So why am I using the two mixes, here? "If I had won the competition",

  • so there was a competition in the past, I'm going to that situation. If I had won it...

  • This is a past unreal, because I didn't win it, then now I would have this job.

  • But because this didn't happen, this is no longer a real situation. Okay? I didn't win the competition,

  • so now I don't have a great job now. Okay? So you've got past, and you have hypothetical,

  • and you have present time. So all these things are mixed, but again, it's all about context.

  • What you have to understand: "If I had won, but I didn't, I would have, but I don't."

  • Okay? So this is the whole idea of mixing conditionals and getting the idea across,

  • without having a very set expression. It's all about the big idea, the relationship between

  • the two. Okay? We're going to look at a few more examples.

  • Okay, now we have a few more. Some of these are very exceptional, means you're not going

  • to hear them too often; they're specific situations. The first one, as an example.

  • "If you will please follow me, I'll show you to your table."

  • Or: "If you would, please follow... If you would, follow me please, I'll show you to your table."

  • This is not a conditional. This is just an expression, a very formal expression.

  • You go to a restaurant, a very fancy restaurant.

  • The host checks your name on the reservations.

  • "Very good. If you will please follow me, I'll show you to your table."

  • It's just a polite way to say: "Please follow me." Okay?

  • And I'm using "if" plus "will", or "if" plus "would", and "will" in the second one. Okay?

  • It's not a conditional. It means: "Please come this way." Okay. It's a very specific

  • situation. You're not going to use this too often.

  • "If it will help my case, I'll take the test."

  • Now, here, I have: "If" and "will", and then

  • "will" again. Now, you've always been told:

  • "No, don't do that." Right? Don't put "will"

  • with the "if" clause, but again, this is not a conditional.

  • This is the result, this is what I will do to get this result. Okay?

  • This does not depend on this.

  • For example: The police... Sorry. The police arrested me, and they said:

  • "We think you killed Mr. X and Mr. Y."

  • I say: "No, I didn't do it."

  • And they said: "Well, I think... We think you're lying."

  • And my lawyer says: "Take the polygraph test."

  • You know, like the test they put on you, and

  • if you're lying, the machine goes up and down like crazy.

  • So I say: "Okay, you know what? If it will help my case, I will take the test."

  • If I can get this result, I will do this action.

  • Okay? So the relationship is not of... One of condition and not of dependency. Result

  • and action. Okay? But:

  • "If it helps, I'll take the test."

  • Here, we have the regular conditional.

  • If it helps, this is what I will do. So if I want,

  • for this condition, I'll do this action. Okay?

  • Now: "If I knew how to cook, I'd have made you dinner instead."

  • So last week, I took a girl out on a date, we went to a restaurant, the food was terrible.

  • She thought, you know, maybe I'm not such a good guy, she doesn't want to date me again. And I say:

  • "No, no, no. I'm a very good guy. I took you to a restaurant because I don't know how to cook.

  • If I knew how to cook,"-unreal, imaginary-"I would have taken you to dinner last week instead."

  • Right? So, past. "I would have made", so past situation, "would have made",

  • but with an unreal condition,

  • with an unreal situation now. "If I knew how to cook". I don't know how to cook, but I

  • still want to tell you what I would have done in the past. Okay? So it's a little bit of

  • a mixed, simple past with "would have made".

  • Last one: "If I weren't so busy, I would go with you."

  • If I weren't so busy, but I am

  • very busy now, I would go with you. So because this is the situation: "If I weren't so busy,"

  • -it's real, I am busy-"I would go with you." Now it's a hypothetical. Now it's unreal because

  • I can't go with you. Why? Because I'm so busy.

  • "If my parents weren't going away next weekend, I would have invited you yesterday." Okay?

  • So now, again, we're mixing. I'm still using the past, but I'm talking about the future,

  • and I'm talking about what I would have done yesterday

  • if this weren't true about next weekend. Okay?

  • So, again, all you need to realize is that the verbs don't necessarily tell you what's