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  • Dunh-dunh-dun-dun-dun-ne-dun-ne-dunh. engVid. Hi. James from engVid. I did a lesson before

  • on sort of crime, when you get arrested by the police, and this is a second part, because

  • there are two parts to a legal system or a law system. The first part is meeting the

  • police, and the police saying you've done something wrong. The second part is when you

  • actually have to get someone to say you are guilty or innocent. We'll go over that in

  • a second or two: What does that mean? But you have to go before people, and they have

  • to tell you everything is good and you can go home, or bad and you have to go to jail.

  • You ready? Let's go to the board.

  • All right, so I was on my stool of justice, but probably gone for a second, here.

  • Let's go to the board. There are a couple terms we want to talk about.

  • Remember we talked about being arrested? Well, the second part is going to court. We like to say:

  • "You have your day in court",

  • which means that you cannot go to jail for no reason. Someone has to say

  • you've done something wrong, and they have to show it. So, this video is about the process

  • of how that happens. Okay? These are called "handcuffs".

  • Handcuffs. Usually you see the

  • police, they put them on you. Well, on you, not on me, if you do something bad. Or you

  • see bad guys wearing handcuffs. And the reason why I did handcuffs is because the two things

  • go together. If you get arrested, you need to go to court.

  • All right? So let's get a start.

  • You'll notice that we have funny pictures up here, so we're going to try and figure out

  • what these pictures mean. The first one you notice is an ear. Well, in North America,

  • before you go to a long-term prison, I give you example. If you drink a little one night,

  • they can put you in jail for one night, but then they usually let you go the next day,

  • so there's nothing special about that. But if they want to put you in jail for a longer

  • period of time, they actually have to give you a "trial". Okay? That's a word up here.

  • But you need to have a "hearing". The hearing is where you go in front of a judge, and that

  • is a man or a woman who listens to what you have to say, and they listen to what the police

  • say, and they decide if they should say:

  • "This is it, don't worry about it", or:

  • "This is serious, and we need to go further."

  • This will happen in cases of murder, and large

  • theft, like $10,000, $100,000, $200,000 or any kind of sexual crime. If you walk across

  • the street when cars are coming, don't worry about it, you won't need a hearing. But you

  • notice ear is for "hearing", so this will tell you the first part is a hearing. "Hearing"

  • because the judge needs to hear what you have to say, because the police have said you're

  • bad, and you get to say: "

  • Hey, look, it wasn't me", or: "It's not what... That's not what happened."

  • So you go for a hearing.

  • Now, after the hearing, the judge will decide, and they will decide if you have a "trial".

  • There are two people you must know will be at the trial. One is...

  • Okay. The first is the "judge". The "judge" is the person with this thing.

  • Oh, not exactly the best drawing

  • in the world, looks like Thor's hammer, but it's called a "gavel". Bang. That's when they

  • tell you the decision, they hit the gavel. So that will be the judge.

  • The other person that will be at your trial will be a "lawyer". Your lawyer. You're going

  • to need one. Make sure if you ever get in this situation, you get a lawyer. In America,

  • it's called an "attorney". They can use both terms, "lawyer" or "attorney". "Lawyer" is

  • commonly used through English-speaking countries. Okay? So, there's also a lawyer for the other

  • side, because there's you, and you're called the "defense", and on the other side, depending

  • who they're representing, the government or another person. Okay?

  • Now, here, after you have... You go to trial, the judge will make a decision. This decision,

  • he will use his gavel, and it is called a

  • "judgment" or "verdict". A judgment or a verdict.

  • This is where they decide if you are "guilty" or "innocent". "Innocent" means you are good,

  • no jail time. "Guilty" means you are bad, okay? Now, you'll notice there's an arrow,

  • here. We go here because there's two little breaks. There's a break for a reason. If the

  • verdict is you are innocent, the charges will be dropped, like a ball. Okay? So you can

  • imagine this, charges dropped, no more, you go home, you're free. Okay? So if you're innocent,

  • you... The charges will be dropped. We'll draw a little electricity, here. Not the best

  • electricity in the world. Dunh-dunh-dunh. Watch the flash, there. Electricity. The charges

  • will be dropped and you go home free.

  • If the charges are not dropped, you will get... I'll write this word, here, and then I'll

  • show in a senten-... A second.

  • "Sentenced". Notice the sentence: "I loved you" is in the

  • past tense. You will get sentenced. You will get a sentence or sentenced. This means they

  • will give you a period of time you must go to jail. They will say:

  • "Okay, you need to go to jail for two years, plus a day", or: "One year".

  • And by the way, those numbers

  • are not just whatever numbers; there's a meaning for why two years plus a day, or you have

  • to serve a year. It depends on the country you're in, and I will get back to that afterwards

  • a little later.

  • Now, if you get sentenced... Notice: "I loved you", okay? You're going to have to go to,

  • dunh-dunh-dunh-dunh,

  • "prison", baby. I'm sorry, you're locked up. You can see this person

  • is very unhappy. But it's not over yet. It's like Monopoly, it's a game.

  • No, sorry, it's not a game, but similar to that if you go to prison, you can actually say:

  • "Hey, this isn't fair. I actually didn't do anything wrong, and I can prove it."

  • And you're allowed to do something called "appeal it". Now, if you notice, this is a banana.

  • Well, the skin of a banana is called "peel", and it is spelt with two e's. That's not how

  • you spell "appeal" here, but you get the idea, because with a banana, the banana is inside,

  • and then you remove the skin to get a look at what's actually there, or to see what happened.

  • In this case, you go for an "appeal" with "eal", okay? An "appeal" means you go back

  • up and say: "I want another judgment." So you go from here, I want an appeal, and you

  • go up to another judgment.

  • If you're lucky, you can get the charges dropped here. If not, I'm sorry, we go straight to

  • here. Okay? So I put "appeal" down here, sorry.

  • Doo-doo-doo-doo-doo-doo-doo,

  • and you're going to serve "time". Okay? You go to prison and you serve time.

  • Sorry about that, kids, but

  • you will have serve... Notice how this looks like a clock, you'll have to do your full

  • sentence if you don't get the appeal.

  • But when you're finished your time, you will be "released". See how the fish is on the

  • hook and you let the fish go? You let the fish go, you are let out of prison and you

  • are released. Now, there's a word I didn't write up here, but I will right now, which is this...

  • These are special words. If you go to jail, you are "convicted" of a crime, which means

  • you went to jail. You are now a "convict". So sometimes you hear people talk about:

  • "He's a convict", or short they say: "He's a con",

  • and that means you serve time in prison. Now,

  • you can do something wrong, but not go to jail, then that means you are not a convict,

  • nor have you been convicted. You might be a "criminal", but you're not a "convict".

  • So when you watch your TV programs, they go: "That con just got out", or: "He's a convict".

  • They're saying this person spent time in prison. Okay? But you could be a criminal and never

  • convicted of anything. Okay? Keep that in mind.

  • Now, there is one thing I want to mention, cross your fingers on this one, sometimes

  • there are so many cases, court cases-right?-going on that it's very difficult for the judge

  • or the lawyers to get to you and your case. And what will happen is they will say:

  • "We're going to throw it out." And they say:

  • "Look, you already went to... You know, you were

  • in jail for the night, you waited two years, this is too long, this is not right, so we're

  • going to throw out your case." Okay?

  • Because when you hear somebody say:

  • "I was... I had to go to a hearing, then I went to... I didn't go to court, because I threw it out",

  • probably what happened is they took too long, so you go home free, no problems. Cool?

  • Well, let's... If you really understand this, we're going to do a little quiz and see how

  • well you understand the court system for British-speaking countries.

  • Are you ready?

  • [Snaps]

  • Hey. Before I start with a little quiz that I have for you, just to make sure you understand

  • what we were doing with the vocabulary we were learning for, you know, the criminal

  • court system, I just want to go over something that you will hear, because I live in Canada,

  • so I will say one thing, but many programs that you will watch will be American, and

  • they will say something else. So you should understand what the difference is, okay?

  • Now, "guilty". If you're guilty of a "felony" or a "federal charge". If something is very

  • small, like you steal a chocolate bar from a store, or you were driving a little too

  • fast, these are classed "misdemeanors", they are small. You probably won't get in that

  • much trouble. Usually, you get a fine where you must go and pay money. That's it. Right?

  • Or you punch somebody, even, boom, you hit someone, you get a fine, usually, if there's

  • no serious damage.

  • However, if you do things that are considered federal charges or felonies, there is something

  • specific that takes place. Number one, there are serious charges. Okay? So felonies and

  • criminal charges are serious. Murder, where you kill someone; rape, this was a sexual

  • attack; if you drink and drive and kill someone, that's called "manslaughter". So you can drive

  • fast, and you'll get a ticket. If you drive and kill somebody or hit somebody, you'll

  • get a felony.

  • Now, what does this mean for you? Because you're like:

  • "Okay, nice words, 'misdemeanor', 'felony', 'criminal charges', blah, blah, blah."

  • Hold your horses. This is serious.

  • When it's a misdemeanor in Canada, you're going to go to jail for less than two years,

  • and the judges will actually say something like: "Two years, less a day", that means

  • you go in provincial... A provincial jail or a local prison, somewhere close to where

  • you live. So if you live in Toronto, you'll go to a Toronto jail, okay? In Canada, if

  • they say this is a criminal charge, it's two years, plus a day. That means federal time.

  • That means they move your butt from where you are to a federal prison. It's considered

  • very serious, that's why it's murder, serious theft, or injuring someone badly.

  • United States is interesting. There's... There's serious crimes, they're called "felonies".

  • It's the same idea, it's a serious crime. But the difference, here, is this: In Canada,

  • they think you're a serious criminal and you need to be in a serious place if you're going

  • to jail for more than two years, because you're very dangerous, they think. In America, 12

  • months is enough. So if you do something, the judge goes: "365 days", you're going to

  • a serious prison.

  • Now, there's one thing I didn't write on the board, but in America they have in many states,

  • like California, they have what's called a "three strikes rule", that means if you get

  • three felonies in a row, you go to jail for the rest of your life. So when in the States,

  • be careful, because the first time you get your first felony and second, don't think:

  • "Oh, I'll just get one more."

  • No, because you're going to go to jail for the rest of

  • your life. All right? Just a little something, because I know many of you who watch American

  • programs are always talking about:

  • "That's a felony, you know that, don't you?"

  • And you're going: "He did something bad, what?"

  • This is why you need to know, okay? You're going

  • to jail at least a year, and if you get three of them, you're done.

  • Now, let's go to the board and do the quiz.

  • Dunh-dunh-dunh-dunh-dunh-dunh.

  • Matlock.

  • "The judge have her __________ and I had to go to jail."

  • Remember there are two possible words for this, so you have two shots to get it right.

  • What do you think it will be?

  • Similar to the decision.

  • That's right, gave her "verdict", or you could say

  • "judgment". She gave her verdict or she gave her judgment, and I had

  • to go to jail. Okay?

  • What about the next one?

  • "In Canada you go to federal prison if your sentence is ____ ____ ____ ____ ____."

  • That's right, "two years plus a day". So if

  • you get two years-that's a long time, people-plus-and this is the important part-plus a day, you're

  • going to federal prison. That's the serious one where the guards carry stuff. Ugh. Not

  • a place you want to go and be for a long time. Okay?

  • Number three:

  • "If the charges are dropped you will be __________."

  • And I want you to think like the fish. Do you remember the fish?

  • That's right, you will be "released". They will let you go. You will be released.

  • And number four:

  • "The person who helps you in court is your __________."

  • In America, they call them "attorneys". What

  • do you think they call them in the rest of the English-speaking places?

  • Another word for "attorney"?

  • Your "lawyer", because your lawyer knows the law.

  • And I'd like to say thanks for doing the quiz, thank you for coming here. Knowing English,

  • I want to send you to a place where you can learn more English, and that's

  • www.eng, eng as in English, vid as in video.com (www.engvid.com), okay?

  • Go to engVid. We would like to teach you more English.

  • Thanks for tuning in, and don't forget to subscribe

  • somewhere here, here, here, or here.

  • Thanks a lot. Chow.

Dunh-dunh-dun-dun-dun-ne-dun-ne-dunh. engVid. Hi. James from engVid. I did a lesson before

Subtitles and vocabulary

Operation of videos Adjust the video here to display the subtitles

A2 US dunh jail dunh dunh prison judge lawyer

Real English: What you need to know if you're going to court

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    Ming Mei posted on 2016/01/24
Video vocabulary