Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Hello everyone, this is Andrew at Crown Academy of English. Today is a grammar lesson and the subject is when to use the word "some" and "any". So let's start. So in this story, I am hungry and I am in the kitchen and I am looking for something to eat. There are some apples. There is some bread. There are some eggs. And there is some wine. So as you can see, in all of these sentences, we are using the word "some". You can see the word "some" in all four sentences. So let's look at these sentences in more detail. Well the first thing we see is that they are all positive sentences. They are all in the affirmative. And there are two types of positive sentence here. On the left, we can see that this is in the plural. There are several apples and so the verb is in the plural - "there ARE" and the noun is in the plural - "apples" with a letter "s". And it is the same for "eggs": "There are some eggs." with an "s" at the end. So these on the left, they are examples of countable nouns. Countable nouns are nouns which are separate objects. We can count them. And a countable noun can exist in the singular and also the plural. Here, for these examples, they are in the plural. So we use the word "some" in positive sentences for countable nouns which are in the plural. And on the right, these are..... these are uncountable nouns. Okay this is slightly different. Uncountable nouns are not separate objects. They... we cannot count uncountable nouns. They are, for example just a mass of product. And they can only exist in the singular. So the verb is in the singular and the noun is in the singular. And so we also use the word "some" for uncountable nouns in positive sentences. So rule one - We use "some" in positive sentences with countable nouns in the plural and uncountable nouns. Okay? So that is what we have seen here. We'll now look at the second rule. So here, I am at my parents' house and I am talking to my mother. I am asking her to give me some food. Can I have some bananas? Can I have some bread? Can I have some eggs? Can I have some water? So again, here in all four sentences, we are using the word "some". And if you look carefully, in fact all of these sentences are questions. We are asking to receive something. We want something so we are asking for it. And, on the left, for the countable nouns, then we have the plural. So we only use the word "some" if the countable noun is in the plural. And, on the right, they are uncountable nouns. So that is always in the singular. So rule number two for the word "some" is: We use "some" in questions asking for something. And the countable noun must be in the plural and it can also be an uncountable noun. So questions asking for something. Now I am at my home. I am with a friend and I am offering food to my friend. So I'm offering something to my friend and I am doing this with a question. Would you like some strawberries? Do you want some sugar? Would you like some grapes? Would you like some pasta? So again, in all four sentences, we are using the word "some" and they are all questions. And these questions are because we are offering something to somebody. Okay? So we are wanting to give something to somebody. And so we use the word "some" for countable nouns in the plural. Always in the plural. We never use the word "some" for countable nouns in the singular. Only the plural. And on the right, again these are uncountable nouns. So rule 3 - We use "some" in questions offering something... for countable nouns in the plural and uncountable nouns. Now for this situation, I am at my friend's house and I am in his kitchen. But I do not know what food he has in his kitchen. So I ask my friend: Do you have any chocolates? Is there any milk in the fridge? Are there any carrots? and do you have any cheese? And here, all four sentences are using the word "any" ok? And we can see that these are all questions. Just normal questions about the noun. And as always, the countable nouns must be in the plural. And so here - "Are there any carrots?" is the plural. So the verb is in the plural: "are" And for the uncountable nouns, uncountable nouns only exist in the singular, so the verb is in the singular and the noun is in the singular. So those are uncountable nouns. So rule one for the word "any" is we use "any" for questions. For normal questions. For normal questions with countable nouns in the plural and uncountable nouns. So "any" in questions. And finally, I am now at a restaurant with some friends and I am talking about food with them. And I am saying "I do not want any chocolates." "We don't want any wine." "There aren't any strawberries." "There isn't any water." So we are using the word "any" And if you look at them, the sentences, they are all in the negative: "do not want", "we don't want", "there aren't any", "there isn't any" Okay? So we use the word "any" for negative sentences. And the countable noun must go in the plural. And so the verb goes in the plural for countable nouns. And uncountable nouns are always in the singular so the verb is in the singular. So rule number two for the word "any" - We use "any" in the negative. And the countable noun is in the plural and also, we use it, we use "any" for uncountable nouns in the negative. Okay so that is the second situation where we use the word "any". Okay? So that was quite easy I hope?! And now I'll give you an exercise. So question one - What is in your fridge at home? I would like you to give me three things that are in your fridge. So my example is "There is some water." Okay? So I want you to answer that. Question two - What foods are not in your fridge? Tell me three things which are not in your fridge? One example - "There isn't any rice." And question three - You are in a shop. And I want you to ask if they have your favourite foods. So three things please and one example is: "Do you have any apples?" Ok? And I would like you to write your answers to this exercise in the comments below the video please. Okay? So write your answers in the comments and I will reply to those comments. I will tell you if your answers are right or wrong. Okay? So... That is the end of the lesson. I hope you enjoyed it. If you would like to subscribe, then you can go ahead and click here on the screen. Here is my Twitter account. And if you would like more information about countable and uncountable nouns, then you can watch this grammar lesson. This explains countable and uncountable nouns. And here is a listening lesson. A listening exercise if you want to do a listening exercise. Okay, that is the end. My name is Andrew at Crown Academy of English. Thank you for watching and I will see you next time. Bye bye!