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  • - WELCOME BACK TO THE FOURTH SECTION

  • IN OUR SERIES ON VITAMINS.

  • AND THIS SECTION,

  • WE'LL BE COVERING VITAMIN K. WHAT I'D FIRST LIKE TO DO IS

  • INTRODUCE VITAMIN K AS ACTUALLY TWO SEPARATE VITAMINS.

  • AND THIS A LITTLE BIT OF A NEW CONCEPT.

  • IN FACT, EVEN WHEN I WAS IN SCHOOL WE ONLY LEARNED ABOUT

  • A GENERAL VITAMIN K, NOT VITAMIN K1 AND K2.

  • VITAMIN K1 IS MOSTLY KNOWN FOR ITS

  • SYNTHESIS OF BLOOD-CLOTTING PROTEIN,

  • SO IT HELPS CLOT THE BLOOD OR IT HELPS IN THE FORMATION

  • OF PROTEINS THAT ARE INVOLVED IN BLOOD-CLOTTING.

  • VITAMIN K2 IS INVOLVED IN THE SYNTHESIS OF BONE PROTEINS,

  • MEANING THAT BONES, 'CAUSE WE'RE MEANING

  • THAT PROTEINS THAT ARE INVOLVED IN BONE FORMATION,

  • VITAMIN K IS AS IN K2 IS INVOLVED

  • IN THE SYNTHESIS OF THESE PROTEINS.

  • NOW, WITH THE K1 THE VITAMIN K THAT IS INVOLVED

  • IN THE SYNTHESIS OF BLOOD-CLOTTING PROTEINS,

  • THIS IS CALLED PHYLOQUINONE AND THAT'S THE NAME.

  • YOU DON'T ACTUALLY NEED TO KNOW THAT

  • IN CASE YOU'RE REFERENCED TO IT.

  • AND YOU CAN THINK OF IT AS P AS IN PLANT,

  • MEANING THAT MOST--

  • THIS IS MORE OF THE PLANT FORM OF VITAMIN K,

  • WHERE THE MENAQUINONE, DOWN HERE YOU CAN SEE THIS,

  • THIS IS THE ANIMAL FORM OF VITAMIN K AND THAT'S K2.

  • NOW, VITAMIN K2 IS ACTUALLY MADE IN THE INTESTINES

  • BUT IT'S NOT ACTUALLY WELL-ABSORBED.

  • WHAT YOU'LL FIND IN YOUR BOOK IS YOU'RE NOT GOING TO

  • SEE THE BOTH VITAMIN K1 AND K2 MENTIONED.

  • AND YOU'RE ALSO GOING TO SEE THAT VITAMIN K IS

  • PRODUCED IN THE INTESTINES, AND THEREFORE WE DON'T NEED ANY.

  • BUT IT IS PRODUCED BY BACTERIA IN THE

  • INTESTINES BUT THIS IS NOT WELL-ABSORBED.

  • IN ADDITION, ALTHOUGH WE DO HAVE THE

  • ABILITY TO CONVERT VITAMIN K1 TO K2,

  • WE APPARENTLY DON'T DO IT EFFICIENTLY ENOUGH

  • SO WE DO NEED FOOD SOURCES OF VITAMIN K2.

  • WITHOUT GETTING ENOUGH VITAMIN K2,

  • EXCUSE ME, VITAMIN K, WE HAVE TWO--

  • A FEW ISSUES THAT CAN DEVELOP.

  • VITAMIN K1, IF WE DIDN'T HAVE ENOUGH

  • WE'D HAVE UNCONTROLLED BLEEDING.

  • AND I WANT TO POINT OUT THAT THIS IS

  • NOT THAT COMMON AND BECAUSE VITAMIN K1,

  • THE BODY HAS A VERY GOOD ABILITY TO RECYCLE IT OR

  • TO REUSE THIS TYPE OF VITAMIN K. AND IF YOU THINK ABOUT IT,

  • IF THERE AREN'T A LOT OF PEOPLE AROUND YOU WHO ARE,

  • YOU KNOW, FALLING DEAD OF UNCONTROLLABLE BLEEDING.

  • IT'S NOT A COMMON PROBLEM.

  • AND THEN, ALSO VITAMIN K, AND I'LL TALK ABOUT THIS NEXT,

  • K1 TENDS TO BE MORE IN COMMON FOOD SOURCE AND

  • MOST PEOPLE ARE GETTING ENOUGH OF VITAMIN K1.

  • NOW VITAMIN K2 IS INVOLVED IN BOTH THE--

  • IF THERE'S A DEFICIENCY THEN FRACTURES CAN DEVELOP.

  • WE THINK OF OSTEOPOROSIS, BUT ALSO HEART DISEASE.

  • YOU WOULDN'T THINK OF IT BECAUSE I JUST SAID

  • THAT IT WAS INVOLVED IN FORMING BONE PROTEINS.

  • BUT I'M GOING TO TALK ABOUT WHAT I MEAN BY THIS NEXT.

  • AND THIS IS AN ANALOGY THAT, IT'S ACTUALLY NOT MY ANALOGY.

  • I DIDN'T COME UP WITH THIS BUT I READ THIS ANALOGY.

  • AND I THINK IT'S A GREAT ONE TO USE BECAUSE

  • VITAMIN K2 AND VITAMIN D ACTUALLY WORK TOGETHER.

  • AND REMEMBER VITAMIN D,

  • THE ROLE OF VITAMIN D, IT HAS MANY ROLES.

  • BUT THE MAIN ONE IS TO CONTROL HOW MUCH CALCIUM IS ABSORBED.

  • SO VITAMIN D IS THE GATEKEEPER.

  • THINK OF IT AS A GATEKEEPER.

  • WELL, OKAY, WE NEED MORE CALCIUM,

  • WE'LL LET MORE CALCIUM INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.

  • WE HAVE ENOUGH CALCIUM, WE WON'T LET IT,

  • YOU KNOW, CALCIUM INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.

  • WHEREAS AS VITAMIN K2 IS A TRAFFIC COP.

  • NOW, ONCE CALCIUM COMES INTO THE

  • BODY IT NEEDS TO KNOW WHERE TO GO.

  • REMEMBER WHEN I TALKED ABOUT IF THERE'S TWO MUCH VITAMIN

  • D YOU WOULD GET SOFT TISSUE CALCIUM DEPOSIT,

  • AND THAT THEY COULD END UP IN THE ARTERIES.

  • AND THAT'S WHAT HAPPENS IS IF THERE IS NO

  • K2 THEN CALCIUM DOES NOT KNOW WHERE TO GO.

  • IT'S LIKE COMING UP TO, YOU KNOW,

  • AN INTERSECTION WHERE THE POWER IS OUT AND

  • NOT KNOWING WHEN TO GO, OR WHERE TO GO,

  • AND YOU MIGHT END UP TAKING THE WRONG TURN.

  • OR YOU MIGHT END UP, SAY, IN A TRAFFIC JAM.

  • WELL, THAT'S WHAT CAN HAPPEN WITH CALCIUM.

  • IF VITAMIN K2 IS THERE THE BONE PROTEINS,

  • THAT ITS INVOLVED IN FORMING,

  • ACTUALLY HELP DIRECT CALCIUM TO THE RIGHT PLACE.

  • SO NOT IN THE ARTERIES,

  • NOT IN THE HEART, BUT INTO THE BONE.

  • SO WE HAVE THE GATEKEEPER VITAMIN D AND

  • THEN THE TRAFFIC COP, WHICH VITAMIN K2.

  • SO THINK ABOUT K2 AS TELLING CALCIUM

  • WHERE TO GO ONCE IT GETS INTO THE BODY.

  • SO IF YOU DON'T HAVE ENOUGH OF THE K2,

  • YOU COULD ENOUGH CALCIUM BUT,

  • AND YOU CAN EVEN HAVE ENOUGH VITAMIN D,

  • BUT YOU MIGHT END UP WITH OSTEOPOROSIS AND HEART

  • DISEASE BECAUSE THE CALCIUM ENDS UP IN THE WRONG PLACE.

  • NOW HERE'S WHAT'S REALLY GOING TO SURPRISE YOU.

  • AND YOU MIGHT THINK I'M CRAZY ONCE I TELL YOU THIS BECAUSE,

  • AGAIN, THIS IS NOT IN YOUR BOOK.

  • BUT THE FOOD SOURCES ARE DIFFERENT.

  • NOW, THE FOOD SOURCES FOR K1,

  • YOU'RE NOT GOING TO THINK TWICE ABOUT.

  • I'M GOING TO TELL YOU THEY ARE FROM

  • DARK LEAFY GREENS AND CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES.

  • WE HAVE KALE AND SPINACH, ROMAINE LETTUCE.

  • AND THEN THE CRUCIFEROUS,

  • SO WHAT WE HAVE BROCCOLI AND CABBAGE, AND THAT'S K1.

  • MOST PEOPLE WILL GET ENOUGH K1 IN THEIR DIET.

  • NOW, THE FOOD SOURCES OF K2 ARE ACTUALLY I'M NOT--

  • ARE A LITTLE BIT MORE SURPRISING.

  • HERE I'M TELLING YOU THAT K2 COULD

  • HELP PREVENT HEART DISEASE,

  • YET IT'S COMING IN SOURCES LIKE BUTTER,

  • EGG YOLK, AND HARD CHEESE.

  • IT ALSO COMES IN SOME--

  • FOUND IN SOME SOFT CHEESES, GRASS-FED BEEFS,

  • AS WELL AS SOMETHING CALLED NATTO

  • WHICH IS THIS FERMENTED SOY BEANS.

  • IT'S VERY POPULAR IN JAPANESE CULTURE.

  • BUT I'VE HEARD IT'S REALLY HARD TO CHOKE DOWN.

  • - [ LAUGHS ] - I'VE NEVER TRIED IT.

  • AND YOU DON'T--

  • SO THESE ARE SOURCES OF THINGS I'VE BEEN,

  • YOU KNOW, WE TALKED INCREASE IN SATURATED

  • FAT AND TRYING TO AVOID FOOD SOURCES WITH THEM.

  • BUT HERE I AM TELLING YOU THAT I KNOW K2 CAN

  • DECREASE THE RISK OF HEART DISEASE.

  • AND IT'S TRUE.

  • BUT THE SOURCES ARE WHAT'S REALLY IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND,

  • IS THESE SOURCES ARE USUALLY A GRASS--

  • BUTTER FROM GRASS-FED COWS IS GOING TO

  • HAVE A DIFFERENT NUTRIENT COMPOSITION.

  • EGG YOLK, BUT IT'S GENERALLY FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKEN.

  • AND IT'S BEEN FOUND THAT DUTCH EGGS,

  • WHICH WE CAN'T GET OVER HERE,

  • HAVE TWICE AS MUCH VITAMIN K2 THAN EVEN OUR FREE-RANGE EGGS.

  • AND IT'S BECAUSE OF THE TYPES OF GRASSES AND BUGS AND INSECTS

  • THAT THE CHICKENS ARE USED TO BEING RAISED ON THERE,

  • COMPARED TO HERE.

  • IT'S MORE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THEM,

  • AND THEN, THE HARD CHEESES.

  • SO I DO WANT YOU TO KNOW THESE SOURCES.

  • I THINK IT'S VERY IMPORTANT.

  • AND I KNOW IT'S A LITTLE BIT OF CONFLICTING DATA,

  • BUT VITAMIN K IS THE NEW AND UPCOMING VITAMIN.

  • K2 IS ALMOST A NEW DISCOVERY AND WE'RE GOING TO BE SEEING

  • A LOT MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS VITAMIN IN THE FUTURE,

  • EVEN ONCE YOU'RE DONE WITH THE CLASS.

  • SO I DO WANT YOU TO BE INTRODUCED

  • TO VITAMIN K2 EVEN THOUGH IT'S NOT IN YOUR TEXTBOOK.

  • AND THIS IS THE END OF THE SECTION ON VITAMIN K.

  •  

- WELCOME BACK TO THE FOURTH SECTION

Subtitles and vocabulary

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B1 US vitamin calcium involved synthesis heart disease bone

9.4 Vitamins: Vitamin K

  • 11 7
    wenwen posted on 2015/10/10
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