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  • Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about IELTS. As

  • usual, with IELTS lessons, I will be speaking a little bit faster than normal. It's good

  • for your listening practice. But if you're not taking the IELTS, you can still listen

  • and try to follow us as we go through this section.

  • So, let's begin. Today, I'm going to look at the IELTS reading section. I'm going to

  • look at three different approaches to tackling the IELTS reading section. Students always

  • ask me: "What should I do with the reading? How do I do it? How can I finish on time?

  • How can I answer more questions?" Right? So I'm going to give you three approaches, three

  • different ways to try to do the IELTS. Okay? We're going to look at three different ways.

  • They're completely different from each other.

  • The most important thing I want to tell you before we start: you have to know what works

  • for you. Okay? One of these approaches will work for you; the others may not. Practice

  • all three. If you're comfortable with one and it seems to work for you, and your score

  • seems to be getting better, stick with that one and practice that one. Don't try to do

  • all three each time. Figure out which one works, and just practice that one the most.

  • Okay?

  • The most obvious one and the first one we're going to talk about: read the entire passage,

  • and then tackle the questions. Now, a few things to say, good and bad, about this approach.

  • So, you have 20 minutes, let's say, that you're going to start from the first passage, you're

  • going to do about 17 minutes; the second passage, you're going to spend 20 minutes; the last

  • passage, you're going to spend 23, 24, 25 minutes. So, you have to do this very fast.

  • So: can you read the entire passage and do the questions in that timeframe? Okay? That's

  • the question you must ask yourself. Are you a fast reader? Can you comprehend everything

  • you're reading? How is your vocabulary? Things like this. Some people, they must read everything,

  • from beginning to end, and then go to the questions. But they can also keep; they can

  • retain the information they've read, so when they go to the questions, they know where

  • to go back and look for the answers.

  • Now, the good part about this is that you have all the information in your head once

  • you've read the entire passage. The bad part is that you're going to be reading the passage

  • twice. Okay? Or not the whole passage, but you're going to read big chunks of the passage

  • twice. You'll have read it the first time, you'll go to the questions, and then you'll

  • be reading again to find the answers, because you're looking for specific words now. When

  • you get to the questions, sometimes it's only one word difference

  • from what you read in the passage.

  • So, do I recommend this? Yes and no. If you're a fast reader and you can comprehend, then

  • yes, do that. If you're not a fast reader, then no, don't do this. You'll be wasting

  • too much time and reading more than you need to.

  • What I'm going to do with these two approaches is show you how to read less. So you don't

  • need to read the entire passage; you just need to read the areas that contain the answers

  • to the questions.

  • So, the second approach: go straight to the questions. You look at the question. First

  • of all, understand the type of the question. Is it a multiple choice? Is it a fill-in-the-blank,

  • like a summary? Are you looking for like headings for each paragraph? Are you looking for the

  • title? Etc. Figure out what you're looking for, read the question carefully, pick out

  • the keywords in the question or the key idea in the question, and then scan the passage.

  • Don't read the passage. Just quickly look everywhere for where that information ought to be.

  • Now, keep in mind, you're going to have a... Let's say you're going to have four questions

  • in one section, four types of questions. Start with 15. Figure out what it's asking, go to

  • the passage, find out the area where that information is, and then start reading there

  • to try to answer as many of the questions as you can. The problem with this approach

  • is that sometimes question 15, the answer will be here; question 16, the answer will

  • be here. So it's not always chronological; it's not always in order of the questions.

  • Some question types are in order. Okay? If you have like a summary a passage with fill-in-the-blanks,

  • and you have to summarize a certain section, then you go to the beginning, find the beginning,

  • and then each one will be the same. Okay? So 15, 16, 17, 18. It will be chronological.

  • But that's for that type of question; it doesn't apply to all question types.

  • Questions such as: "Yes/No/Not given", or: "True/False/Not given", this sometimes will

  • work; sometimes it won't. Okay? Especially for the "Not given", because you can have

  • the "Yes", "Yes", "No", "Not given". Okay? So this will help you in most cases, but in

  • some cases, it will not help you. But practice this. If it works for you, do it. Okay? Remember:

  • it's all about time management. You have to be able to get through the entire passage

  • and the entire questions three times in one hour. Yeah? You want to try to finish everything.

  • Now, the third section. Before I even start to explain how it works, I want you to understand

  • that it's difficult, it's really not easy, it takes a lot of practice, but if you can

  • do this and do it well, you can finish the entire test on time and read the absolute

  • minimum that you have to. Okay?

  • How does this work? Before you do anything else, I want you to summarize each paragraph

  • by itself. How do you do this? You go to the paragraph, you read the topic sentence. The

  • topic sentence will always be the first or second sentence. It will give you a general

  • idea of what the paragraph is about. Because remember: in good writing, one paragraph has

  • one central idea. That idea will be in the topic sentence. Once you understand what the

  • general idea is, then you scan the rest of the paragraph, looking for keywords that support

  • that topic sentence.

  • Once you have the topic, once you find the keywords that support that topic, then you

  • know what this paragraph is about. Write two-three word(s) summary of that paragraph. Okay? Then,

  • once you have the summary of everything, you do the entire passage... You should be able

  • to get yourself to do it 5 to 7 minutes you should be able to go through the whole passage.

  • Okay? That gives you over 10 minutes to work on the questions.

  • Then you go to the questions. Now, the key is to know where the answers should be. Why?

  • If you understand the question, the question is about the history of something. Well, here,

  • in paragraph "A", the history of this thing. If the question is about the people involved,

  • well, here, you already wrote: "People involved". Right? So you know where to go look. So now,

  • you go straight to the paragraph where the answer should be, and you find out the information.

  • Then you're... Then you're doing the same thing here. Sorry, as number two. You're matching

  • keywords and matching your answers.

  • Now, there's two reasons this is good. One: you're reading less, two: you're doing it

  • much quicker. You've gone through the whole passage very quickly. You don't need to read

  • anything that has nothing to do with the questions. Okay? And three: one of the question types

  • on the reading section is: "Give each paragraph a heading." If you did the summary, then you've

  • already done these questions. Okay? There's going to be usually 5 or 6 at least headings,

  • like 5 or 6 paragraphs. Each one you have to give a heading to. If you've done the summary,

  • then you've already did that question type. You look at the headings, you match them to

  • your summary, and then there's your answer.

  • Two: if the passage does not have a title... If the passage does not have a title, automatically

  • you can understand one of the questions will be: "What is a good title for this passage?"

  • If you've done the summaries, already start thinking about the title if there isn't one,

  • because that's going to be one of your questions. So you're actually killing two, sometimes

  • three birds with one stone by doing it this way. Okay?

  • Now, I know it's not easy. I know it's very difficult, it takes a lot of practice, but

  • we're going to work on one paragraph together just so you know what I'm talking about.

  • Okay, so now, let's look at how to do approach three, how to do a bit of a summary of a paragraph.

  • So what we're looking at here, we're looking at a passage. I'll give you a background,

  • because actually you can see I only have one paragraph and not even a complete paragraph,

  • because it was too long. But this is a passage about the history of recorded music or even

  • recorded sound. This is not the first paragraph. The first paragraph was probably an introduction

  • about sound recordings, because today, we have all kinds of different ways of listening

  • to music. We have iPod, MP3 player, all kinds of digital recordings. We used to have CDs,

  • and we used to have 8-tracks, and vinyl records, and tapes. So what we're looking at is the

  • history and probably evolution of recorded music.

  • So, now, what came probably before this paragraph was a paragraph about the phonautograph, which

  • is a type of machine that was invented a long time ago to record sound. We also had a paragraph

  • about how it worked, how it did this. Okay? So now, when we get to this paragraph, we

  • already have some background information, and now we want to know what this paragraph

  • is about without reading the entire paragraph.

  • So we read the topic sentence, which is basically and usually the first sentence. "The Phonautograph

  • eventually evolved into the Phonograph." So now, what is the main idea of this...? Of

  • this paragraph? It's about the change into something else, or the next step. Okay? How

  • do we know? We have the word "eventually", which suggests time, something is happening

  • over time. "Evolved", "evolved" means changed into something better, usually. Evolution

  • is usually into something better. Devolution, something worse. "Into the Phonograph", and

  • we're going to find out: what is a Phonograph? Okay? So this, right away, we have the idea

  • that this paragraph is about the evolution or the change into the Phonograph, the next

  • step from what came before.

  • So now, what we want to do... We don't want to read the rest. We want to confirm our idea

  • that this is about the evolution of something, of the Phonograph. We want to find keywords

  • in the paragraph to support that. So, first of all, we have Thomas Edison. He wasn't mentioned

  • before; he's mentioned now. If you know who he is, he's a famous inventor from a long

  • time ago. He "discovered" something. Okay? Usually evolutions come with discoveries.

  • We have an "1878", we have "1887" also. We have time progression. Okay?

  • Now, he found a "way". Before, we spoke about how sound was recorded on a cylindrical, like

  • a disc that spun like this, cylindrically. Okay? And it went like this, and something

  • was grooved onto it. Now, we have: "He discovered a way to record on impressionable material

  • - tinfoil, lead", so different material. Okay? Before it was on metal with charcoal, basically.

  • Again, we don't know that here; we knew that from the paragraph before. Now we have different

  • material, so again, we have evolution, "or wax".

  • And then we continue reading, then "discovery", blah, blah, blah, we're continuing to reading.

  • Oh, we have a "flat disc". Before, we had a cylinder. Now we have a flat disc. Okay?

  • "Creating a medium", we have a new medium. We have a new name. Somebody else is now getting

  • involved in this evolution. Okay? Now: "instead of tracing", now, this word "instead" tells

  • you that instead of what was here, we now have something else. "Over a rotating" something

  • else, and: "the resulting disc". Right? So everything points to an evolution of something;

  • we're going to the next step, to a different way of recording sound.

  • So now, what do we want to do? On the side... We don't want to write a full sentence. We

  • don't want to take this full paragraph and summarize it in one or two sentences. We want

  • to summarize it in one or two words. Okay? We already have the word "evolution" in our

  • minds. Very simple. There's a new medium. This paragraph is about the new medium. In

  • the... In which case is going to be the disc. Okay? I could write: "New medium - disc".

  • The last paragraph: the cylinder. This paragraph: the disc. The next paragraph... I mean, this

  • paragraph will continue. If you go to www.engvid.com and take the quiz, you will see the entire

  • paragraph there, it will make more sense. But here, I have a brief explanation of how

  • the disc worked as compared to the cylinder, and I also have an explanation of why it was

  • good, why it was an evolution, why they did this.

  • Then the next paragraph will likely go to the next step. The next step will be electrical,

  • and then you have magnetic, and then you have digital, and then you have all kinds of steps

  • from the beginning of the recording of music till today. Okay? Because it's the history

  • of... The entire passage