B1 Intermediate UK 2385 Folder Collection
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The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the international organization called
the United Nations. It was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts
Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member
countries. It entered into force on 24 October 1945, after being ratified by the five permanent
members of the Security Council—the Republic of China under Chapter II of the United Nations
Charter, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, and the United
States—and a majority of the other signatories. As a charter, it is a constituent treaty,
and all members are bound by its articles. Furthermore, Article 103 of the Charter states
that obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other treaty obligations. Most countries
in the world have now ratified the Charter.
Summary The Charter consists of a preamble and a series
of articles grouped into chapters. The preamble consists of two principal parts.
The first part contains a general call for the maintenance of peace and international
security and respect for human rights. The second part of the preamble is a declaration
in a contractual style that the governments of the peoples of the United Nations have
agreed to the Charter. Chapter I sets forth the purposes of the United
Nations, including the important provisions of the maintenance of international peace
and security. Chapter II defines the criteria for membership
in the United Nations. Chapters III-XV, the bulk of the document,
describe the organs and institutions of the UN and their respective powers.
Chapters XVI and Chapter XVII describe arrangements for integrating the UN with established international
law. Chapters XVIII and Chapter XIX provide for
amendment and ratification of the Charter. The following chapters deal with the enforcement
powers of UN bodies: Chapter VI describes the Security Council's
power to investigate and mediate disputes; Chapter VII describes the Security Council's
power to authorize economic, diplomatic, and military sanctions, as well as the use of
military force, to resolve disputes; Chapter VIII makes it possible for regional
arrangements to maintain peace and security within their own region;
Chapters IX and Chapter X describe the UN's powers for economic and social cooperation,
and the Economic and Social Council that oversees these powers;
Chapters XII and Chapter XIII describe the Trusteeship Council, which oversaw decolonization;
Chapters XIV and Chapter XV establish the powers of, respectively, the International
Court of Justice and the United Nations Secretariat. Chapters XVI through Chapter XIX deal respectively
with XVI: miscellaneous provisions, XVII: transitional security arrangements related
to World War II, XVIII: the charter amendment process, and XIX: ratification of the charter.
Charter Provisions Preamble
The Preamble to the treaty reads as follows:
We the peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge
of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person,
in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from
treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
And for these ends to practice tolerance and live together in
peace with one another as good neighbours, and
to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed
force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement
of all peoples, Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish
these aims
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San
Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed
to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization
to be known as the United Nations. Although the Preamble is an integral part
of the Charter, it does not set out any of the rights or obligations of member states;
its purpose is to serve as an interpretative guide for the provisions of the Charter through
the highlighting of some of the core motives of the founders of the organisation.
Chapter I: Purposes And Principles
Article 1 The Purposes of the United Nations are
To maintain international peace and security, to take effective collective measures for
the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of
aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and
in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement
of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal
rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to
strengthen universal peace; To achieve international co-operation in solving
international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in
promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all
without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common
ends. Article 2
The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall
act in accordance with the following Principles: The Organization is based on the principle
of the sovereign equality of all its Members. All Members, in order to ensure to all of
them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the
obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.
All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner
that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.
All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force
against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other
manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.
All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in
accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state
against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations
act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance
of international peace and security. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall
authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the
domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters
to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application
of enforcement measures under Chapter Vll. Chapter II: Membership
Chapter II of the United Nations Charter deals with membership of the United Nations organization
Chapter III: Organs
There are established as principal organs of the United Nations: a General Assembly,
a Security Council, an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship Council, an International
Court of Justice and a Secretariat. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary
may be established in accordance with the present Charter.
Chapter IV: The General Assembly
Chapter V: The Security Council
COMPOSITION Article 23
1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nations. The Republic
of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America shall be permanent members of the
Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect ten other Members of the United Nations
to be non-permanent members of the Security Council, due regard being specially paid,
in the first instance to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the maintenance
of international peace and security and to the other purposes of the Organization, and
also to equitable geographical distribution. 2. The non-permanent members of the Security
Council shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election of the non-permanent
members after the increase of the membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen,
two of the four additional members shall be chosen for a term of one year. A retiring
member shall not be eligible for immediate re-election.
3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative.
FUNCTIONS and POWERS Article 24
1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members
confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace
and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security
Council acts on their behalf. 2. In discharging these duties the Security
Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The
specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid
down in Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII. 3. The Security Council shall submit annual
and, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its consideration.
Article 25 The Members of the United Nations agree to
accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present
Charter. Article 26
In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security
with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources,
the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the assistance of the
Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted to the Members of
the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments.
VOTING Article 27
1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote
of nine members. 3. Decisions of the Security Council on all
other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring
votes of the permanent members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph
3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.
PROCEDURE Article 28
1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously. Each
member of the Security Council shall for this purpose be represented at all times at the
seat of the Organization. 2. The Security Council shall hold periodic
meetings at which each of its members may, if it so desires, be represented by a member
of the government or by some other specially designated representative.
3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the
Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work.
Article 29 The Security Council may establish such subsidiary
organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.
Article 30 The Security Council shall adopt its own rules
of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.
Article 31 Any Member of the United Nations which is
not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question
brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of
that Member are specially affected. Article 32
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or any
state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under
consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without vote, in
the discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay down such conditions
as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United
Nations. Chapter VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes
Chapter VII: Action with respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and Acts
of Aggression
Chapter VIII: Regional Arrangements
Chapter IX: International Economic and Social Co-operation
Chapter X: The Economic and Social Council
Chapter XI: Declaration regarding Non-Self-Governing Territories
Chapter XII: International Trusteeship System
Chapter XIII: The Trusteeship Council
Chapter XIV: The International Court of Justice
Chapter XV: The Secretariat It comprises the secretary general and such
other staff as the organization may require. It provides services to the other organs of
the United Nations, such as the G.A, the S.C, the ECOSOC, and the trusteeship council, as
well as their subsidiary bodies. The secretary general is appointed by the
G.A on the recommendation of security council. The staff of the secretariat is appointed
by the secretary general according to the regulation laid G.A.
The secretariat is located at the headquarters of the U.N in New York.
The secretariat also includes the regional commission secretariat at Baghdad, Bangkok,
Geneva and Santiago. Function of Secretariat
preparation of report and other documents containing information, analysis, historical
background research finding, policy suggestions and so forth, to facilitate deliberations
and decision making by other organs. to facilitate legislative organs and their
subsidiary bodies. provision of meeting services for the G.A
and other organs provision of editorial, translation and document
reproduction services for the issuance of UN documents in different language.
conduct of studies and provision of information to various member states in meeting challenge
in various fields preparation of statistical publication, information
bulletin and analytical work which the G.A. has decided
organization of conferences experts group meetings and seminar on topics of concern
to the international community provision of technical assistance to develop
countries. understanding of service mission to countries,
areas or location as authorized by the G.A or the security council
Chapter XVI: Miscellaneous Provisions
Chapter XVII: Transitional Security Arrangements
Chapter XVIII: Amendments
Chapter XIX: Ratification and Signature
See also Command responsibility
Nuremberg Principles United Nations
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Notes and references
External links Full Text In the UN Website
Scanned copy of the signed charter Original ratifications.
Ratifications/admissions under Article IV. Alger Hiss recounts transporting the UN Charter
after its signing. Procedural history note and audiovisual material
on the Charter of the United Nations in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual
Library of International Law Declaration of Principles of International
Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation Among States in Accordance with the Charter
of the United Nations Lecture by Annebeth Rosenboom entitled Practical
Aspects of Treaty Law: Treaty Registration under Article 102 of the Charter of the United
Nations in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International
Law
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United Nations Charter

2385 Folder Collection
Jenny Hsu published on July 13, 2015
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