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  • Hey, Vsauce. Michael here.

  • What are monsters?

  • Scary, unnatural things?

  • Yes, but they're more than that and we knew that back when we named them.

  • The word monster comes from the same root word

  • as demonstrate and demonstrative.

  • Monere, meaning to teach, to instruct, to warn.

  • Monsters, like dinosaurs

  • and the stories we tell about them have a lot to tell us

  • about ourselves, about the past and about the future.

  • This Vsauce1 video is not an ordinary video,

  • it is a dinosaur-dinary video

  • built not just out of me talking,

  • but also world-famous paleontologist and technical adviser to every Jurassic Park film

  • Jack Horner

  • and the hilarious Chris Pratt.

  • First things first, scientists have so far broken Earth's history down into 22 periods.

  • The Jurassic period has come and gone,

  • but the one we live in today is called the Quaternary.

  • Jurassic World is the movie that you're in. Yes. The thing that we're filming right now

  • Quaternary World. Quaternary World. We are organisms from the Quaternary.

  • Quaternary Park would be, well, basically like Universal Studios or something.

  • Exactly. Actually, literally any place on Earth right now.

  • Dinosaurs,

  • fossils. Yeah. Dinosaur, fossil.

  • Fossil, fossil fuel. Wow. Is it safe to say that

  • our cars run on the ghosts of dinosaurs?

  • That question sounds mind-blowing,

  • but is it true? Are we really fuelling our cars with dinosaur remains?

  • Well, I asked paleontologist Jack Horner

  • and his answer is worth beginning from the bottom or rather

  • from things that come out of bottoms.

  • You'll see what I mean. Okay, so this.

  • Let me guess what this is. Okay. Yeah, it looks like coal almost. Well, they are, it's

  • actually a coprolite. What's a coprolite?

  • Fossilised dung. Dung?

  • Oh, so this is plant material that was eaten

  • Eaten. Turned into poop. Yes. And then preserved

  • so that I could hold it today. Yes, exactly.

  • That's a dinosaur poop. This is dinosaur poop.

  • Yes. It smells like a rock. Sometimes when we break open

  • somebody's things that are... that have a...

  • have a very high concentration plant material you actually can smell it.

  • Really? What does it smell like?

  • Mmmh, rotting wood.

  • After this long it still has an odor of rotting? It can, yes.

  • So, we can probably learn a lot.

  • We can learn more about the dinosaur from that right there than we can from the bone from its body

  • That is amazing. Because we can determine,

  • we can determine exactly what it was eating

  • and and and we can

  • look at how it's chopped up, so you can tell a lot about

  • exactly how they process the food. So, from the

  • scientific perspective of learning about dinosaurs

  • poop is not crappy at all.

  • Yes.

  • Thanks for laughing at that. Now, at any point would that turn into oil?

  • No, oil does not come from dinosaur poop.

  • Does it come from dinosaurs at all?

  • It doesn't come from dinosaurs at all. They come from microorganisms and oceans.

  • If you took all of the dinosaurs that ever lived

  • and... and, you know, squished them up

  • in order to get the oil out of them,

  • we'd probably go through that oil in, you know, couple of days.

  • No kidding! I mean the microorganisms from the ocean,

  • from the oceans over these millions of years produced...

  • I mean, the biomass is just incredible compared to the dinosaurs.

  • Compared to the dinosaurs.

  • So there could be a tiny molecule of oil in every thousand gallons or more

  • that's from a dinosaur. No, you really not even gonna...

  • That's not even going to happen as well. Basically, all of the oil reserves we have

  • are in

  • in sedimentary rocks, produced in oceans.

  • So we don't put dinosaur ghosts into our cars,

  • but don't feel lonely. There are actual living dinosaurs with us today.

  • There are dinosaurs still around today.

  • Dinosaurs never went extinct.

  • What? Elaborate, alright, fine I will. So, dinosaurs...

  • Yeah, that's what I meant. Dinosaurs are not a species, that was called a clade.

  • They're from the clade dinosauria. And the clade is just some

  • organism and all of its descendants. Okay. Okay?

  • Dinosaurs came in all different types, right? -mhm

  • All of these things were called dinosauria -mhm

  • and then a huge extinction event happened, 65 million years ago.

  • Yup. Giant rock hit Earth -yeah

  • and like almost all of them, all the ones, died

  • except for a few.

  • And you know what this one was, this little branch?

  • That's what clade means, by the way - branch.

  • Aardvark. Aardvark. No? Uhh,

  • I do. I know what it was. What? Halibut.

  • Just for the halibut I will say correct.

  • That's a dumb joke, that's a joke that's been made a bunch.

  • I've never heard it before. Really? You just said "halibut" like

  • "hell of it." Yeah. Yeah. Classic. Now figure this trout.

  • Wow.

  • Dude.

  • The answer is birds.

  • Technically birds aren't just descended from dinosaurs, they literally are dinosaurs.

  • Exactly. You know, to determine how things are related to one another

  • we look at the characteristics that they share

  • and when you think about birds and the characteristics

  • that we think of as being bird characteristics, they are feathers,

  • hollow bones, the wishbone,

  • um you know, you can go on and on, but those are just a few of them

  • and it turns out dinosaurs have them as well, so

  • dinosaurs had these characteristics before birds.

  • The hypothesis is that birds are dinosaurs.

  • The meteor impact that killed off the dinosaurs

  • didn't kill off all of them.

  • It killed off the, what we call the non-avian dinosaurs and

  • and the avian dinosaurs we still have with us.

  • In Jurassic World, the park's decision-makers create dinosaurs

  • that have appearances that bring in tourists,

  • not appearances that are historically accurate.

  • For example, they didn't put feathers on any of their dinosaurs,

  • although it is believed that many dinosaurs

  • had feathers.

  • It's believed that the velociraptor probably

  • actually looked more like this.

  • And as far as the reality of creating a park like Jurassic World,

  • Horner had this to say.

  • Everything about it is fictional,

  • we can't bring dinosaurs back by cloning them.

  • If we make dinosaurs, which,

  • I hope we are able to do one of these days,

  • it will be retro engineering from a bird,

  • in other words going backwards from a bird.

  • They're still going to be fictional creatures

  • because they're not going to be historical dinosaurs.

  • They'll be things we made. They'll be things we make, yeah, that's right.

  • Why are we so thrilled by the idea of bringing back un-extincting non-avian dinosaurs?

  • You know what? That actually brings up an even bigger question.

  • Why are dinosaurs so fascinating to kids?

  • Dinosaurs are terrifying and we love to be scared,

  • but Dracula and ghosts and all this stuff,

  • it's a little, it's a little not real.

  • But dinosaurs? We've got their fossils. Right. You know?

  • We've got the fact that, no, these really were on Earth,

  • they really were walking around right here.

  • Why is it so awesome when they flip out and start killing people?

  • Watching something flip out and kill people is thrilling.

  • It's morbid curiosity, but the more intense the flip out,

  • the more exciting it is to see the flip undone,

  • to see humans prevail in the end.

  • No matter how beastly and huge dinosaurs were,

  • the fact remains that they went extinct.

  • They are a reminder that

  • sooner or later the universe will beat everything.

  • A meteor impact, like the one that

  • killed off all the non-avian dinosaurs will happen again

  • in about the next 100 million years or so, but we might stand a fighting chance.

  • We have technology, and we have the ability to predict,

  • and possibly even avoid, a similar fate involving us.

  • Outer space may seem distant

  • and sometimes irrelevant to pressing earthly concerns,

  • but let's not forget what Larry Niven said,

  • "The dinosaurs went extinct because they didn't have a space program."

  • And as always, thanks for watching.

Hey, Vsauce. Michael here.

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B2 dinosaur jurassic avian poop jurassic world oil

Jurassic World Science feat. Chris Pratt and Jack Horner

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    吳 珦宏 posted on 2015/07/07
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