Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles December 7th 1941, the turmoil of WWII enters its 27th month. Japanese troops storm Shanghai. German army stand at the gates of Moscow, leaving 3.5 million casualties in their wake. Nazi Germany has mainland Europe in its grip Under siege, Britain hangs on by a thread. 3,000 miles away, the United States remains in peace. 76% of her citizens support neutrality. At 7:58 a.m., the peace is shattered. 360 Japanese war planes descend on Pearl Harbor. WWII has come to America. This is America's war as never seen before from the unique vantage point of space, Witness the key battles unfold, and the military strategies behind them in stunning detail revealed other political Alliances, the global battle for resources, and the astounding awakening of American military and manufacturing might that will determine the outcome of the greatest conflict ever fought. The unprovoked Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor will send shock waves across the globe. But the America has feared the strike for months. Since 1931, Japan's Imperial ambitions have grown bolder and bolder. First Manchuria is invaded, then China itself. When France falls to Nazi Germany in 1940, Japan seizes control of French Indochina The U.S. response is rapid. Japan's financial assets are frozen. and an oil embargo is imposed. The message is clear: withdraw from Indochina or be economically crushed. After the embargo, Japan was faced with two choices: stop territorial expansion, give in to the demands of the Allies, or go to war. Japan chooses war. in the words of Prime Minister Tōjō, it is either glory or declined. it is imperative that they made the first decisive strike. The Japanese knew they were never going to go toe to toe with the United States in a long naval war in the Pacific. They knew they didn't have the economic might and military might For those calculations that they could (?)administer a knock out blow to the capital ships of the US Pacific Fleet. You could destroy the Pacific Fleet. The ability of Americans to respond to anything for many months would be taken away. So the strikes of Pearl Harbor was not just a strike at a symbol of American power. It blast American power in the Pacific. What American intelligence cannot see is revealed from space. Admiral Yamamoto's fleet departs Japan on the longest assault in history. Avoiding shipping lanes and land mass, they arrive on-scene 275 miles from their target. it's the perfect vantage point, beyond the range of America's defensive radar but at the optimum strike distance for its force of 414 cutting-edge aircraft --- the jewels in the crown, the Mitsubishi Zero. It's faster than anything they had used before. It's incredibly maneuverable and has extreme range but while the technology was pretty good, what mattered at Pearl Harbor was the men behind it. It was the pilots. The Japanese pilots had already been at war for years. So they're well-trained crews. You add on top of that they had been planning on that attack for a long period of time So they had been running wargames stimulating and going through the action again and again. So basically, many of them talked about how they could have done it if going in blind. At 7:55 a.m. the first wave of bombers swoop from the sky. On the deck of the USS Arizona is Don Strap. We knew right away that they were Japanese planes, and we knew that they were bombing for ___ and something was really wrong. Planes were strafing and dive bombing and it's a ... horrible experience and a horrible sight. There was a high altitude bomber dropped like(?) a 2,000 pound bomb. and made it just devastating to everything in its path (?)The concussion and the smoke and fire (?)was horrendous. It just was like you lost your home. Of the battleships at anchor, the Arizona, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and California are sunk, the rest severely damaged. In 68 minutes, Japan has crippled the heart of American Pacific Fleet. From the Japanese perspective, the attack on Pearl Harbor succeeded beyond the most optimistic expectations. When you consider the losses that the Japanese suffered in this attack, it is essentially nothing. The Japanese lose 64 men to 3,649 U.S. casualties, a human damage ratio of 57:1. The Japan's margin of victory hides 2 major flaws in the attack. But the Japanese failed to systematically attacked the oil fields the oil storage tanks at Pearl Harbor. If they'd spent one more sortie taking out those oil tanks, they'd have crippled the whole Pacific Fleet (?)which would have the fuel supplies to keep going. More significant other ships the Japanese failed to target. The American aircraft were absent from Pearl Harbor at the time of the Japanese attack. And as things evolved very quickly, it became clear that aircraft carriers destined to become the most significant naval assets for either side in the Pacific War and the American carriers were untouched. Oil supplies and air domination, 2 factors that will dictate the fate of WWII, and Japan fails to damage either. Instead, it has waken the full wrath of the sleeping of American Giant. Pearl Harbor infuriated the American people and also infuriated American military. Massive casualties, destruction of most the Pacific Fleet If you want to do one thing to unite a country that before this it has been rather divided about what to do about the war, Pearl Harbor was that. This was like a lightning rod throughout the American population. No longer was President Roosevelt limited in his options. He had the United States population that was angry and unified and desired revenge against Japan. Her era of isolationism is over. America is at war. And begins its rise to become the most powerful nation on the planet. Washington calculates victory will cost 300 billion dollars, 4.4 trillion in today's money, over one and a half times the total U.S. federal budget. The government can raise half through increased taxes. For the rest, it must turn to the public. To raise 300 billion dollars was then (?)viewed as insurmountable challenge because basically we had to get half the population of the United States to buy bonds. And what we were saying is we were in WWII, We were in this to win. It's a fight of good vs. evil. And you, on an individual level, are going to make a difference. To guarantee success, the ad men of New York, recruit America's most potent propaganda asset. We had a Hollywood machine. America has mass market in movies. They knew the power of Hollywood. They knew the power celebrities. Over 300 movie icons joined the stars over America campaign. Criss-crossing the nation, Chicago, 2 huge celebrity rallies sell over 15 million dollars in bonds. New York, a three-way baseball game generates 56 million dollars. By the end of war, bonds campaigns raise 187.5 billion dollars. To get everybody online behind one goal and make the transaction is huge. America and its beleaguered Allies are going to need every cent. Four days after Pearl Harbor, Nazi Germany declares war on the United States. She now faces 2 vast and battle-hardened powers on 2 fronts. When America went to the war, It looked as if the military aggressors were going to win. Seen from space, America's peril is clear, Her fleet is in disarray and her Pacific assets at the mercy of rampant Japan. On the other side of the planet, her strongest military ally Great Britain is buckling under siege from Nazi Germany. America is at the epicenter of the greatest conflict in history. Roosevelt must make the biggest call of any U.S. presidency: Which enemy to engage first? Frank Delano Roosevelt decided that Germany was the one that could take down our closest friends around the world and they had to make sure that Britain survived. Keeping Britain afloat was essential to the long term prospects of victory. It stood as a large aircraft carrier that would enable an invasion onto the continent. If Britain fell under Nazi domination, the challenge would be almost insurmountable. For Roosevelt, the future of great Britain is the future of the war. But after 17 months of fighting alone, its survival rests on a knife edge. Isolated, Britain's only hope is to keep her supply routes open, a fragile lifeline German Admiral Dönitz seeks to destroy. Britain depended on the import of 5 million tons of stuff every month. German Admiral Dönitz argued very persuasively: "We can subtract a million tons a month, we will bring Britain to its knee." Dönitz's lethal weapon is the U-boat. Capable of traveling thousands of miles submerged and armed with a deadly cocktail of deck guns, mines and torpedoes, it is the perfect weapon to starve Britain into submission. When they attack, they're sending over 9,000 tons of supplies to the bottom of the ocean. With one munition, one torpedo when it detonates, it creates this void underneath the vessel that cracks(?) the vessel to collapse. it's the difference between being stabbed and someone breaking your back. It's a killer. Churchill introduces naval convoys to protect the merchant fleets. Dönitz's response is devastating. Admiral Dönitz introduced this thing called the Rudeltaktik, wolfpack attack tactics. A Rudel is a pack of animals. and instead of the approaching singly as submarines done in the past, the Germans would have their U-boats stringing out in these long patrol lines. and then they would use radio signals to congregate the pack and overwhelm the defense of the convoy. The results are devastating. When you get caught by a pack of these, you might lose half or more of the convoy. In 12 months, 900 ships are sunk. Only 29 U-boats are destroyed. It's a war of attrition. Britain is losing fast. Winston Churchill knows it's one big thing. In 1940 that for Britain to be able to fight this war, you need American help and you can't do it alone. Churchill tirelessly lobbies Roosevelt for American support. Though officially neutral, Roosevelt cuts a deal. The U.S. gives 50 destroyers to Britain to keep it in the fight, but at a price. In return, Britain hands over 8 of its overseas bases to America, and dismantles its preferential trading system with its colonies. It's a very mixed deal for Britain because on the one hand, it helps Britain fight the war. They couldn't have done it without American support materially. On the other hand, it accelerated the collapse of the British empire. It makes the Empire more and more unaffordable which to Winston Churchill (?)that's a very painful deal that one the public has to be mind. December 1941, America enters the war. Its first act of aggression is to join Britain in the battle of the Atlantic, a strategy that meets with disaster. When America enters the war, the battle of the Atlantic actually takes a turn, worse for the Allies. The amount of Allied shipping that sunk goes up by these astronomical amounts. By mid-1942, 2,703 Allied ships are sunk, a U-boat kill ratio of 36 to 1. It's an unsustainable rate of loss. Even with America fighting alongside, the liberty of Britain and the freedom of Europe hang by a thread. Mid 1942, Britain remains in a stranglehold of the German U-boat menace. American ships coming to its aid are being destroyed at alarming rates. To reverse their fortunes, the Allies must gain the upper hand in the intelligence war. The most critical factor in the Battle of Atlantic was the exchange of information between the Americans and the British. (?)It maximized by the technology of electrical capability on both sides. The precedent for this vital collaborations is the Tizard Mission, 15 months before the Pearl Harbor attack.