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  • December 7th 1941,

  • the turmoil of WWII enters its 27th month.

  • Japanese troops storm Shanghai.

  • German army stand at the gates of Moscow,

  • leaving 3.5 million casualties in their wake.

  • Nazi Germany has mainland Europe in its grip

  • Under siege, Britain hangs on by a thread.

  • 3,000 miles away,

  • the United States remains in peace.

  • 76% of her citizens support neutrality.

  • At 7:58 a.m., the peace is shattered.

  • 360 Japanese war planes descend on Pearl Harbor.

  • WWII has come to America.

  • This is America's war as never seen before

  • from the unique vantage point of space,

  • Witness the key battles unfold,

  • and the military strategies behind them in stunning detail

  • revealed other political Alliances, the global battle for resources,

  • and the astounding awakening of American military and manufacturing might

  • that will determine the outcome of the greatest conflict ever fought.

  • The unprovoked Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

  • will send shock waves across the globe.

  • But the America has feared the strike for months.

  • Since 1931,

  • Japan's Imperial ambitions have grown bolder and bolder.

  • First Manchuria is invaded,

  • then China itself.

  • When France falls to Nazi Germany in 1940,

  • Japan seizes control of French Indochina

  • The U.S. response is rapid.

  • Japan's financial assets are frozen.

  • and an oil embargo is imposed.

  • The message is clear:

  • withdraw from Indochina or be economically crushed.

  • After the embargo, Japan was faced with two choices:

  • stop territorial expansion, give in to the demands of the Allies,

  • or go to war.

  • Japan chooses war.

  • in the words of Prime Minister Tōjō,

  • it is either glory or declined.

  • it is imperative that they made the first decisive strike.

  • The Japanese knew they were never going to go

  • toe to toe with the United States in a long naval war in the Pacific.

  • They knew they didn't have the economic might and military might

  • For those calculations that they could (?)administer a knock out blow

  • to the capital ships of the US Pacific Fleet.

  • You could destroy the Pacific Fleet.

  • The ability of Americans to respond to anything for

  • many months would be taken away.

  • So the strikes of Pearl Harbor was not just a strike at a symbol of American power.

  • It blast American power in the Pacific.

  • What American intelligence cannot see is revealed from space.

  • Admiral Yamamoto's fleet

  • departs Japan on the longest assault in history.

  • Avoiding shipping lanes and land mass,

  • they arrive on-scene 275 miles from their target.

  • it's the perfect vantage point,

  • beyond the range of America's defensive radar

  • but at the optimum strike distance for its force of

  • 414 cutting-edge aircraft

  • --- the jewels in the crown, the Mitsubishi Zero.

  • It's faster than anything they had used before.

  • It's incredibly maneuverable and has extreme range

  • but while the technology was pretty good,

  • what mattered at Pearl Harbor was the men behind it.

  • It was the pilots.

  • The Japanese pilots had already been at war for years.

  • So they're well-trained crews.

  • You add on top of that

  • they had been planning on that attack for a long period of time

  • So they had been running wargames

  • stimulating and going through the action again and again.

  • So basically, many of them talked about how they could have done it if going in blind.

  • At 7:55 a.m.

  • the first wave of bombers swoop from the sky.

  • On the deck of the USS Arizona is Don Strap.

  • We knew right away that they were Japanese planes, and

  • we knew that they were bombing for ___ and something was really wrong.

  • Planes were strafing and dive bombing and

  • it's a ... horrible experience and a horrible sight.

  • There was a high altitude bomber dropped like(?) a 2,000 pound bomb.

  • and made it just devastating to everything in its path

  • (?)The concussion and

  • the smoke and fire (?)was horrendous.

  • It just was like you lost your home.

  • Of the battleships at anchor,

  • the Arizona, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and California are sunk,

  • the rest severely damaged.

  • In 68 minutes, Japan has crippled the heart of American Pacific Fleet.

  • From the Japanese perspective, the attack on Pearl Harbor

  • succeeded beyond the most

  • optimistic expectations. When you consider the losses

  • that the Japanese suffered in this attack, it is essentially nothing.

  • The Japanese lose 64 men to 3,649 U.S. casualties,

  • a human damage ratio of 57:1.

  • The Japan's margin of victory hides 2 major flaws in the attack.

  • But the Japanese failed to systematically attacked the oil fields

  • the oil storage tanks at Pearl Harbor.

  • If they'd spent one more sortie taking out those oil tanks,

  • they'd have crippled the whole Pacific Fleet (?)which would have

  • the fuel supplies to keep going.

  • More significant other ships the Japanese failed to target.

  • The American aircraft were absent from Pearl Harbor

  • at the time of the Japanese attack.

  • And as things evolved very quickly, it became clear that aircraft carriers

  • destined to become the most significant naval assets for either side

  • in the Pacific War and the American carriers were untouched.

  • Oil supplies and air domination,

  • 2 factors that will dictate the fate of WWII,

  • and Japan fails to damage either.

  • Instead, it has waken the full wrath of the sleeping of American Giant.

  • Pearl Harbor infuriated the American people

  • and also infuriated American military.

  • Massive casualties, destruction of most the Pacific Fleet

  • If you want to do one thing to unite a country

  • that before this it has been rather divided

  • about what to do about the war, Pearl Harbor was that.

  • This was like a lightning rod throughout the American population.

  • No longer was President Roosevelt limited in his options.

  • He had the United States population that was angry and unified

  • and desired revenge against Japan.

  • Her era of isolationism is over.

  • America is at war.

  • And begins its rise to become the most powerful nation on the planet.

  • Washington calculates victory will cost 300 billion dollars,

  • 4.4 trillion in today's money,

  • over one and a half times the total U.S. federal budget.

  • The government can raise half through increased taxes.

  • For the rest, it must turn to the public.

  • To raise 300 billion dollars was then (?)viewed as insurmountable challenge

  • because basically

  • we had to get half the population of the United States to buy bonds.

  • And what we were saying is we were in WWII,

  • We were in this to win.

  • It's a fight of good vs. evil.

  • And you, on an individual level, are going to make a difference.

  • To guarantee success, the ad men of New York,

  • recruit America's most potent propaganda asset.

  • We had a Hollywood machine.

  • America has mass market in movies.

  • They knew the power of Hollywood. They knew the power celebrities.

  • Over 300 movie icons joined the stars over America campaign.

  • Criss-crossing the nation,

  • Chicago, 2 huge celebrity rallies sell over 15 million dollars in bonds.

  • New York, a three-way baseball game generates 56 million dollars.

  • By the end of war, bonds campaigns raise 187.5 billion dollars.

  • To get everybody online behind one goal

  • and make the transaction is huge.

  • America and its beleaguered Allies are going to need every cent.

  • Four days after Pearl Harbor,

  • Nazi Germany declares war on the United States.

  • She now faces 2 vast and battle-hardened powers on 2 fronts.

  • When America went to the war,

  • It looked as if the military aggressors were going to win.

  • Seen from space,

  • America's peril is clear,

  • Her fleet is in disarray

  • and her Pacific assets

  • at the mercy of rampant Japan.

  • On the other side of the planet,

  • her strongest military ally Great Britain is buckling under siege from

  • Nazi Germany.

  • America is at the epicenter of the greatest conflict in history.

  • Roosevelt must make the biggest call of any U.S. presidency:

  • Which enemy to engage first?

  • Frank Delano Roosevelt decided that Germany was the one that

  • could take down our closest friends around the world

  • and they had to make sure that Britain survived.

  • Keeping Britain afloat was essential

  • to the long term prospects of victory.

  • It stood as a large aircraft carrier

  • that would enable an invasion onto the continent.

  • If Britain fell under Nazi domination,

  • the challenge would be almost insurmountable.

  • For Roosevelt, the future of great Britain

  • is the future of the war.

  • But after 17 months of fighting alone,

  • its survival rests on a knife edge.

  • Isolated, Britain's only hope is to keep her supply routes open,

  • a fragile lifeline German Admiralnitz seeks to destroy.

  • Britain depended on the import of 5 million tons of stuff every month.

  • German Admiralnitz argued very persuasively:

  • "We can subtract a million tons a month, we will bring Britain to its knee."

  • nitz's lethal weapon is the U-boat.

  • Capable of traveling thousands of miles submerged

  • and armed with a deadly cocktail of deck guns, mines and torpedoes,

  • it is the perfect weapon to starve Britain into submission.

  • When they attack, they're sending over 9,000 tons

  • of supplies to the bottom of the ocean.

  • With one munition, one torpedo

  • when it detonates, it creates this void underneath the vessel

  • that cracks(?) the vessel to collapse.

  • it's the difference between

  • being stabbed and someone breaking your back.

  • It's a killer.

  • Churchill introduces naval convoys

  • to protect the merchant fleets.

  • nitz's response is devastating.

  • Admiralnitz introduced this thing called the Rudeltaktik,

  • wolfpack attack tactics. A Rudel is a pack of animals.

  • and instead of the approaching singly as submarines done in the past,

  • the Germans would have their U-boats stringing out in these long patrol lines.

  • and then they would use radio signals to congregate the pack

  • and overwhelm the defense of the convoy.

  • The results are devastating.

  • When you get caught by a pack of these,

  • you might lose half or more of the convoy.

  • In 12 months,

  • 900 ships are sunk.

  • Only 29 U-boats are destroyed.

  • It's a war of attrition. Britain is losing fast.

  • Winston Churchill knows it's one big thing.

  • In 1940 that for Britain to be able to fight this war,

  • you need American help and you can't do it alone.

  • Churchill tirelessly lobbies Roosevelt for American support.

  • Though officially neutral, Roosevelt cuts a deal.

  • The U.S. gives 50 destroyers to Britain

  • to keep it in the fight,

  • but at a price.

  • In return,

  • Britain hands over 8 of its overseas bases to America,

  • and dismantles its preferential trading system with its colonies.

  • It's a very mixed deal for Britain because on the one hand, it helps Britain fight the war.

  • They couldn't have done it without American support materially.

  • On the other hand, it accelerated the collapse of the British empire.

  • It makes the Empire more and more unaffordable

  • which to Winston Churchill

  • (?)that's a very painful deal that one the public has to be mind.

  • December 1941,

  • America enters the war.

  • Its first act of aggression is to join Britain in the battle of the Atlantic,

  • a strategy that meets with disaster.

  • When America enters the war,

  • the battle of the Atlantic actually takes a turn,

  • worse for the Allies.

  • The amount of Allied shipping that sunk

  • goes up by these astronomical amounts.

  • By mid-1942,

  • 2,703 Allied ships are sunk,

  • a U-boat kill ratio of 36 to 1.

  • It's an unsustainable rate of loss.

  • Even with America fighting alongside,

  • the liberty of Britain and the freedom of Europe

  • hang by a thread.

  • Mid 1942,

  • Britain remains in a stranglehold of the German U-boat menace.

  • American ships coming to its aid are being destroyed at alarming rates.

  • To reverse their fortunes,

  • the Allies must gain the upper hand in the intelligence war.

  • The most critical factor in the Battle of Atlantic

  • was the exchange of information between the Americans and the British.

  • (?)It maximized by the technology of electrical capability on both sides.

  • The precedent for this vital collaborations is the Tizard Mission,

  • 15 months before the Pearl Harbor attack.