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  • HI, I'M RICK STEVES,

  • BACK WITH MORE OF THE BEST OF EUROPE.

  • THIS TIME, WE'RE IN THE LAND OF MOZART.

  • IT'S SALZBURG.

  • THANKS FOR JOINING US.

  • SALZBURG IS FOREVER SMILING

  • TO THE TUNES OF MOZART AND THE SOUND OF MUSIC.

  • THANKS TO ITS CHARMING OLD TOWN,

  • SPLENDID BAROQUE CHURCHES,

  • ONE OF EUROPE'S LARGEST MEDIEVAL FORTRESSES,

  • AND SO MANY GREAT PLACES NEARBY,

  • SALZBURG FEELS DESIGNED TO KEEP ITS VISITORS HAPPY.

  • IN SALZBURG WE'LL EXPLORE ITS DELIGHTFUL OLD TOWN,

  • ENJOY MOZART IN A PALACE,

  • AND RELAX IN A SUN-DAPPLED BEER GARDEN.

  • THEN WE'LL SETTLE INTO A FARMHOUSE B&B,

  • SURVIVE A MOUNTAIN LUGE RUN,

  • AND CRUISE TO ONE OF THE JEWELS

  • OF AUSTRIA'S LAKE DISTRICT.

  • SITTING IN THE CENTER OF EUROPE IS AUSTRIA.

  • FROM OUR HOME BASE IN SALZBURG, WE SIDE-TRIP

  • INTO THE SALZKAMMERGUT LAKE DISTRICT --

  • LAKE HALLSTATT,

  • AND THE TOWN BY THE SAME NAME.

  • SALZBURG IS STEEPED IN HISTORY.

  • IN THE YEAR 700, ITS BAVARIAN RULERS GAVE CONTROL OF SALZBURG

  • TO THE LOCAL BISHOP IN RETURN FOR HIS PROMISE

  • TO DEFEND AND EXPAND CHRISTIANITY IN THE AREA.

  • SALZBURG REMAINED AN INDEPENDENT STATE FOR OVER A THOUSAND YEARS,

  • UNTIL IT SURRENDERED TO NAPOLEON.

  • THANKS TO ITS FORMIDABLE FORTRESS

  • AND ITS KNACK FOR REMAINING NEUTRAL,

  • THE CITY MANAGED TO AVOID THE RAVAGES OF WAR

  • UNTIL WORLD WAR II.

  • WHILE MUCH OF THE NEW PART OF TOWN --

  • ON THE FAR SIDE OF THE RIVER --

  • WAS DESTROYED BY WORLD WAR II BOMBS,

  • THE HISTORIC OLD TOWN SURVIVED.

  • THE NEW TOWN HAS

  • THE BIG BUSINESS AND TRAIN STATION,

  • BUT THE OLD TOWN, SITTING BETWEEN

  • THE SALZACH RIVER AND A HILL CALLED MONCHSBERG,

  • HOLDS NEARLY ALL THE CHARM AND MOST OF THE TOURISTS.

  • WITH AROUND EIGHT MILLION VISITORS

  • PROWLING ITS COBBLED LANES EACH YEAR,

  • SALZBURG CAN FEEL PRETTY TOURISTY.

  • YOU DON'T GO TO SALZBURG TO AVOID THE TOURISTS.

  • YOU GO TO EXPERIENCE A TOWN WHICH, IN SPITE OF ITS CROWDS,

  • IS THOROUGHLY ENJOYABLE.

  • MOST OF THE HAPPY TOURISTS PROBABLY WOULDN'T BE HERE

  • IF NOT FOR THE MAN HONORED BY THIS STATUE.

  • WOLFGANG MOZART SPENT

  • MUCH OF HIS FIRST 25 YEARS IN SALZBURG --

  • ONE OF THE GREATEST BAROQUE CITIES NORTH OF THE ALPS.

  • FOR CENTURIES, SALZBURG'S LEADERS WERE BOTH

  • IMPORTANT CHURCH AUTHORITIES AND POLITICAL RULERS.

  • THEY WERE "PRINCE-ARCHBISHOPS,"

  • COMBINING BOTH POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS POWER.

  • THE ENERGETIC PRINCE-ARCHBISHOP WOLF DIETRICH,

  • WHO RULED AROUND THE YEAR 1600,

  • HAD THE GREATEST IMPACT ON THE TOWN.

  • WOLF DIETRICH WAS RAISED IN ROME,

  • COUNTED THE POWERFUL MEDICIS IN FLORENCE AS HIS BUDDIES,

  • AND HAD GRANDIOSE ITALIAN AMBITIONS FOR SALZBURG.

  • HIS GOAL -- TO BUILD "THE ROME OF THE NORTH."

  • THIS SQUARE, WITH ITS STRIKING CATHEDRAL

  • AND ITALIAN-STYLE PALACE,

  • WAS THE CENTERPIECE OF HIS BAROQUE DREAM CITY.

  • A SERIES OF INTERCONNECTING SQUARES

  • LEAD FROM HERE THROUGH THE OLD TOWN.

  • THIS FOUNTAIN COULD BE STRAIGHT OUT OF ITALY.

  • THE TRITON MATCHES BERNINI'S FAMOUS TRITON FOUNTAIN IN ROME.

  • LYING ON A BUSY TRADE ROUTE

  • CONNECTING NORTHERN EUROPE WITH THE SOUTH,

  • SALZBURG WAS WELL AWARE

  • OF THE EXCITING THINGS GOING ON IN ITALY.

  • THINGS ITALIAN WERE RESPECTED AND IN VOGUE.

  • SOME NORTHERN ARTISTS EVEN ITALIANIZED THEIR NAMES

  • IN ORDER TO RAISE THEIR RATES.

  • SALZBURG'S CATHEDRAL, CONSTRUCTED IN THE EARLY 1600s,

  • WAS ONE OF THE FIRST GRAND BAROQUE BUILDINGS

  • NORTH OF THE ALPS.

  • IT'S SUNDAY MORNING.

  • THE 10:00 MASS IS FAMOUS FOR ITS MUSIC,

  • AND TODAY IT'S MOZART.

  • ENTER THE CATHEDRAL,

  • AND YOU'RE IMMERSED IN PURE BAROQUE GRANDEUR.

  • DONA NOBIS

  • NOBIS PACEM

  • SINCE IT WAS BUILT IN ONLY ABOUT 15 YEARS,

  • THE CHURCH BOASTS PARTICULARLY HARMONIOUS ART AND ARCHITECTURE.

  • IN GOOD BAROQUE STYLE, THE ART IS SYMBOLIC,

  • COHESIVE, AND THEATRICAL,

  • CREATING A KIND OF FESTIVAL PROCESSION

  • THAT LEADS TO THE RESURRECTED CHRIST

  • TRIUMPHING HIGH ABOVE THE ALTAR.

  • NOBIS

  • DONA NOBIS

  • NOBIS PACEM

  • PACEM

  • MUSIC AND THE VISUAL ART COMPLEMENT EACH OTHER.

  • THE ORGAN LOFT FILLS THE CHURCH WITH GLORIOUS SOUNDS

  • AS MOZART, 250 YEARS

  • AFTER HIS BIRTH, IS STILL POWERING WORSHIP

  • WITH HIS MUSICAL GENIUS.

  • NOBIS

  • NOBIS PACEM

  • NOBIS

  • PACEM ♪♪

  • WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART,

  • WHO WAS THE CATHEDRAL ORGANIST FOR TWO YEARS,

  • WAS BORN IN THIS HOUSE IN 1756.

  • IT WAS HERE THAT HE COMPOSED MOST OF HIS BOY-GENIUS WORKS.

  • FOR FANS, IT'S ALMOST A PILGRIMAGE.

  • BUT HIS LATER RESIDENCE, THE MOZART WOHNHAUS,

  • ACROSS THE RIVER, OFFERS A BETTER EXHIBITION

  • ON HIS LIFE AND TIMES.

  • THE PLACE IS FILLED

  • WITH SCORES OF SCORES,

  • PORTRAITS,

  • INSIGHTS INTO HIS FAMILY LIFE

  • AND HOW THE YOUNG PRODIGY

  • WAS BASICALLY HOME-SCHOOLED HIS HARD-DRIVING FATHER.

  • THE MOZART FAMILY WAS SUCCESSFUL ENOUGH

  • TO ENTERTAIN SALZBURG'S HIGH SOCIETY IN THIS FINE ROOM.

  • THIS FAMILY PORTRAIT SHOWS MOZART WITH HIS SISTER --

  • HE WAS PROUD OF HIS FIRST-EVER COMPOSITIONS FOR FOUR HANDS --

  • HIS FATHER, ALSO A FINE MUSICIAN AND COMPOSER,

  • AND HIS MOTHER, WHO DIED TWO YEARS EARLIER IN PARIS.

  • NANNERL CALLED THIS PORTRAIT

  • THE BEST EVER DONE OF HER BROTHER.

  • MOZART SPENT A GOOD PART OF HIS CHILDHOOD ON THE ROAD,

  • PERFORMING ALL OVER EUROPE.

  • BUT THROUGHOUT HIS YOUTH, HE CALLED SALZBURG HOME.

  • WHEN HE WAS 25 HE WAS READY FOR THE BIG CITY

  • AND MOVED TO VIENNA.

  • TODAY, SALZBURG'S PRIDE IN MOZART SHOWS ITSELF BEST

  • NOT IN MUSEUMS BUT IN LIVE CONCERTS.

  • SALZBURG IS A WORLD-CLASS DESTINATION

  • FOR LIVE MUSICAL PERFORMANCES.

  • EACH SUMMER IT HOSTS ITS FAMOUS SALZBURG FESTIVAL.

  • BUT SALZBURG IS BUSY ALL YEAR LONG,

  • WITH OVER 2,000 LIVE PERFORMANCES

  • IN CHURCHES AND PALACES LIKE THIS.

  • WE'RE HEADING INTO THE MIRABELL PALACE

  • TO HEAR A STRING QUARTET PLAY IN A SPLENDID BAROQUE HALL.

  • MOZART PERFORMED

  • FOR THE PRINCE-ARCHBISHOP RIGHT HERE.

  • AND THIS EVENING

  • THE TWINS QUARTET FROM MOSCOW

  • PLAY MOZART'S EINE KLEINE NACHTMUSIK.

  • THE SURROUNDING MIRABELL GARDENS, LAID OUT IN 1730,

  • ARE A FAVORITE WITH LOCALS AND TOURISTS ALIKE.

  • ENJOYING THE GARDEN, CATHEDRAL, CASTLE VIEW,

  • IT'S EASY TO IMAGINE HOW THE PRINCE ARCHBISHOP

  • MUST HAVE REVELED IN SUCH A VISTA

  • THAT REMINDED HIM OF ALL HIS SECULAR

  • AS WELL AS RELIGIOUS POWER.

  • THE HOHENSALZBURG FORTRESS

  • TOWERS 400 FEET ABOVE THE SALZACH RIVER.

  • ONE OF EUROPE'S MIGHTIEST CASTLES,

  • IT DOMINATES SALZBURG'S SKYLINE.

  • ACCESS IS QUICK AND EASY FROM THE OLD TOWN BY FUNICULAR.

  • ITS CANNONS EVOKE BOTH THREATS OF CENTURIES PAST

  • AND THE POWER OF SALZBURG'S RULERS.

  • THE COURTYARD WAS THE MAIN SQUARE

  • OF THIS HILLTOP COMMUNITY OF A THOUSAND --

  • WHICH COULD BE SELF-SUFFICIENT WHEN NECESSARY.

  • THE WELL DIPPED INTO A RAIN-FED CISTERN.

  • THE SQUARE WAS RINGED BY BLACKSMITHS,

  • BAKERS, AND CRAFTSMEN.

  • IMAGINE HOW EXPENSIVE THIS MASSIVE FORTRESS WAS TO BUILD,

  • AND IT WAS NEVER REALLY USED IN BATTLE.

  • THAT WAS THE IDEA.

  • THE GUYS WHO PAID FOR IT WOULD SAY IT WAS A GOOD INVESTMENT --

  • SO FOREBODING, NOBODY ATTACKED SALZBURG

  • FOR A THOUSAND YEARS.

  • ITS RAMPARTS PROVIDE THE BEST VIEWS OF THE CITY.

  • SURVEYING THE TOWN,

  • YOU CAN IMAGINE SALZBURG THROUGH THE AGES.

  • FROM THE CASTLE, TAKE A STROLL

  • ACROSS THE FORESTED MONCHSBERG HILL

  • FOR A BREEZY RESPITE FROM THE CITY

  • AND MORE COMMANDING VIEWS.

  • SET YOUR SIGHTS ON THE SPIRE OF THE AUGUSTINIAN CHURCH,

  • AND YOU'LL FIND WHAT SEEMS LIKE HALF OF SALZBURG

  • FEASTING AND DRINKING.

  • THOSE AUGUSTINIANS MUST HAVE BEEN

  • THE MOST POPULAR MONKS IN TOWN

  • FOR THEIR ROLLICKING BEER GARDEN.

  • AUSTRIA SPECIALIZES IN A KNACK FOR CONVIVIALITY.

  • AND IN SALZBURG,

  • THERE'S NO BETTER PLACE TO EXPERIENCE THAT THAN HERE

  • AT THE AUGUSTINER BRAUSTUBL.

  • ON BALMY SUMMER EVENINGS, THIS BREWERY

  • HAS THE AMBIANCE OF A RENOIR PAINTING,

  • AS ALL GENERATIONS GATHER UNDER THE CHESTNUT TREES

  • AS THEY HAVE FOR CENTURIES

  • TO ENJOY CHEAP FOOD,

  • GOOD BEER,

  • AND THAT SPECIAL LOCAL COZINESS,

  • CALLED GEMUTLICHKEIT.

  • IT'S SELF-SERVICE.

  • PERUSE THE FOOD STALLS.

  • NO SHORTAGE OF MEATS,

  • KRAUT, AND SALADS.

  • AND THE STECKERLFISCH --

  • NOW THAT'S MY KIND OF FISH STICK!

  • GETTING A BEER IS FUN IN ITSELF.

  • BUY YOUR TOKEN, CHOOSE A MUG.

  • TWO CHOICES -- BIG AND HUGE.

  • GIVE IT A RINSE --

  • AND FILL 'ER UP.

  • AS IS OFTEN THE CASE IN ROWDY EUROPEAN EATERIES LIKE THIS,

  • YOU SHARE TABLES

  • AND MAKE NEW FRIENDS.

  • OLD SALZBURG'S BUSY AND COLORFUL MAIN DRAG

  • WAS AND STILL IS GETREIDE GASSE.

  • AMIDST ALL THE TOURISTS AND CHAIN OUTLETS,

  • ITS CLASSY SHOPS

  • AND TRADITIONAL WROUGHT-IRON SIGNS

  • GIVE IT A TOUCH OF ELEGANCE.

  • PONDERING THE OLD-TIME SIGNS --

  • WHICH WERE ADVERTISING BACK IN THE DAYS

  • WHEN MOST SHOPPERS COULDN'T READ --

  • YOU CAN ALMOST IMAGINE STROLLING HERE,

  • LOOKING FOR A STURDY PAIR OF BOOTS, A STYLISH DIRNDL,

  • OR EVEN A LITTLE SCHNAPPS.

  • THE SPORER FAMILY HAS BEEN DISTILLING SCHNAPPS

  • AND SELLING IT FROM THIS FRIENDLY HOLE-IN-THE-WALL

  • FOR JUST OVER A HUNDRED YEARS.

  • IT'S GOOD TO SEE HOW,

  • IN THE MIDST OF ALL THIS TOURISM,

  • PURELY LOCAL HANGOUTS STILL SURVIVE.

  • THE REGULARS HERE KNOW

  • THAT THERE ARE ENOUGH FLAVORS OF SCHNAPPS

  • TO KEEP THEM COMING BACK AGAIN AND AGAIN.

  • OBSTLER IS APPLE AND --

  • APPLE AND PEAR.

  • OKAY.

  • AND IT'S VERY TYPICAL

  • FOR THIS AREA.

  • SO THIS IS APPLE AND PEAR?

  • APPLE AND PEAR, YES.

  • GOOD.

  • ZUM WOHL!

  • PROSIT!

  • [ LAUGHING ]

  • OOH, THAT'S GOOD.

  • YOU DON'T THROW IT DOWN. YOU SIP IT, IS THAT RIGHT?

  • YOU SIP IT, YES.

  • AND WHAT IS SCHNAPPS?

  • SCHNAPPS IS DISTILLED FRUITS.

  • SO THERE'S MANY DIFFERENT KINDS OF SCHNAPPS?

  • YES, THERE ARE MANY FRUITS

  • IN AUSTRIA, AND WE DISTILL

  • ALMOST EVERYTHING.

  • AND WHEN IS THE NORMAL TIME

  • WHEN YOU WOULD DRINK SCHNAPPS IN AUSTRIA?

  • AFTER DINNER, AS A DIGESTIVE,

  • OR YOU DRINK IT BESIDE A BEER IN THE EVENING, OR --

  • BUT THIS IS AFTER BREAKFAST, AND YOU'RE STILL QUITE BUSY.