B1 Intermediate US 18868 Folder Collection
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So have you ever wondered who actually invented the internet?
Some people have become zillionaires thanks to the internet
But all they did was invent clever ways of using the Internet
so the person who invented the internet should be a gazillionaire equivalent to
say God, shouldn't they? But who should get the credit then?
Was it a British geek in a Swiss underground lab?
Clever Americans threatened with nuclear annihilation by the Russians
Nice idea. French scientists
who decided to call the computer network the Le Internet.
Interesting. Or was it thanks to a myriad of smart scientists
working on something they knew was useful but didn't realize would be so big.
Well let's try and get some facts straight
There's the internet, the whole bunch of computer networks connected to each other,
and then there's the World Wide Web, a way of making it easier to share information
using all those interconnected computers. The Internet as we know it today
was at least forty years in the making. One popular but wrong story
is that the Internet was developed by the USA , so they had a communication network
that would survive a nuclear war. According to one of the founders of the
first network the, ARPANET, in the 1960s,
this first network experiment wasn't about communication at all.
It was about optimizing processor usage of time-sharing
which basically meant that scientists could share computer power, too
That was because until the nineteen sixties there was basically no network,
you had big machines called mainframes which sat in a room
and process computing tasks one at a time. With time-sharing
these behemoths could process several tasks at a time which meant that power could be
used by several scientists at once.
And obviously once you start connecting computers together,
you start to wonder about what you need to do to make communications between
them easier. Scientists around the world were trying to solve this problem。
so let's look at some of the other key concepts that were developed elsewhere.
starting with packet switching. In Britain, there was a commercial network
developed by the National Physical Laboratory
but which never really got off the ground because it didn't get funding
but they did come up with the idea of packet switching,
a way of avoiding congestion in busy networks by cutting up data at one end
and putting it back together at the other. The French
also played a role, they were working on a scientific network called CYCLADES
but they didn't have a big budget so they decided to work on
direct connections between computers as opposed to working with Gateway computer.
Now as an aside here this admittedly isn't very scientific
But according to one theory, a spin off of their research
was the word "Internet". But you don't have to believe it if you don't want to.
so now it's the early nineteen seventies
There's quite a lot of computer infrastructure but communication is
awkward and patchy, because different networks can't talk to each other.
TCP IP solves this problem.
The TCP/IP protocols form the basic communication language of the Internet
which labels the packets of data and make sure that even though some pieces
of the same data take a different route,
they all arrive at their destination and can be reassembled.
Networks really began communicating with each other in 1975.
so you could argue that was the beginning of the Internet.
Email was also very important it was developed for ARPANET in 1972.
Most Internet traffic in 1976 was email
because academics thought electronic post-it notes were dead core.
With networks that could talk to each other, communication was becoming easier.
But all this communication was just text based
and it was pretty ugly to look at. In the nineteen eighties
a brat called Timothy Berners-Lee spent time with CERN, the European
Organization for Nuclear Research
where physicists are trying to work out what the universe is made of.
He wanted to manage the scientists information and make it possible for them to share
and interconnect their work easily making progress more likely.
He did so by inventing an interface using HTTP
HTML and URL's that made internet browsers possible.
He called his browser the World Wide Web, so he didn't invent the Internet
but he did invented the web.
The first-ever website which he created was at CERN in France in August 1991.
So once the initial infrastructure was in place the key technologies have been invented,
Internet message boards exploded in the nineteen eighties. The phone company saw
the commercial potential of digital communication.
Web browser spread like wildfire in the early nineteen nineties
and ordinary people discovered email then the
internet expanded rapidly and steadily and became workable for the masses
from about nineteen ninety-five. Hold on,
didn't US Vice President Al Gore invent the internet?
No. And if you read what he said exactly
you know he never claimed to have done. But many people credit him with
energetically pushing legislation that encouraged the spread of the Internet.
The internet exists because we need to communicate
and most of us like doing it. That's why humans have become
dominant species on Earth. You could argue
the Internet is a natural evolutionary step
and a manifestation of that need.
It wasn't invented by anyone in particular but when the building blocks
were put together by all those cool scientists from all over the place,
the Internet became a communication tool, a retail tool
a research tool, a propaganda tool, the spying tool,
a shopping tool ,a dating tool and entertainment tool
And a way of skiving off work while making it look like you're working or studying
which is what you may be doing now. Ultimately though,
you're communicating especially if you leave a comment
and that might make you a better human being.
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Who Invented the Internet? And Why?

18868 Folder Collection
廖詩愉 published on March 17, 2015    廖詩愉 translated    Wendy reviewed
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