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  • Do you wait until the last minute to buy  gifts? Joey and Chandler do. Today we're  

  • taking a scene from Friends and  we're doing a full pronunciation  

  • analysis. What are the characteristics of  American English? You're going to improve  

  • your listening comprehension and your English  pronunciation too. Here's the scene we'll study.

  • Hi.

  • Hey, anyone hear from Phoebe yet?

  • No, nothing.

  • I hope she's okay.

  • Yeah. I know exactly what she's going through.

  • How do you know exactly what she's going through?

  • She told us.

  • So what you got there Monica?

  • Just some stuff for the party.

  • Hey, what are you guys doing here? Aren't  you supposed to be Christmas shopping?

  • You guys haven't gotten your presents yet?  

  • Tomorrow is Christmas Evewhat are you going to do?

  • Don't you have to be Claymation  to say stuff like that?

  • And now let's do the full analysis.

  • Be sure to download my Sounds  of American English Cheat Sheet,  

  • it's free. It's an illustrated reference  guide for you for all the American English  

  • sounds including the phonetic symbols you need  to know. Link here and in the video description.

  • Hi.

  • Hey, anyone hear from Phoebe yet?

  • So, two common American greetingsHey is more common and I talked  

  • about that in the video that we did two weeks ago,  

  • another scene from this Friends episodeHi, hi, up down shape of stress. Hi.

  • Hi.

  • Hey.

  • Hey, hey. And then hey, a more common  greeting, hey, also up down shape of stress.

  • Hey

  • Hey, anyone hear from Phoebe yet?

  • So, this is a yes no question. So out pitch  is going up towards the end. That's common  

  • for yes no questions. So, we have a couple  stressed syllables, let's listen for them.

  • Anyone hear from Phoebe yet?

  • Anyone hear from. So, we start higher and we come  low. Anyone. A little bit of up down on here from.  

  • So, anyone and here. Anyone, three  syllable word with first syllable stress.

  • Anyone hear from Phoebe yet?

  • Phoebe yet? So, then we backed up. So, Phoebealso stressed but rather than going up down,  

  • the stress here goes down up. Phoebe  yet? Because we're heading up,  

  • because of it being a yes no question. Phoebe yet?

  • Phoebe yet?

  • Phoebe yet? And we have a stop T there, he doesn't  release that air stop T yet just an abrupt stop.  

  • That is the most the most common pronunciation  of an ending T at the end of a thought group.  

  • Let's look at our linking and things that are  happening with the pronunciation in this phrase.

  • Anyone hear from Phoebe yet?

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  • Anyone hear from Phoebe yet?

  • Anyone hear from. Anyone hear from. So, do you  hear how I'm saying this. I'm not saying from.  

  • I'm saying from, from. That's exactly how Ross  said it so this word reduces. We change from  

  • the uh as in butter vowel. From, to the  schwa. From, from, from. The schwa gets  

  • absorbed by that M so you can think of there  being no vowel there. From, from, hear from.

  • Anyone hear from--

  • The word 'hear', if you look this up indictionary, you'll see it's got the ih as  

  • in sit vowel, but when that vowel is  followed by schwa R like it is here,  

  • it changes, it becomes a vowel more like the  E vowel. So it's not e but he-ee, hear, hear.

  • Anyone hear from--

  • Anyone hear from, anyone  hear from, anyone hear from.  

  • See if you can copy that  smoothness. Anyone hear from.

  • Anyone hear from--

  • Phoebe yet?

  • Phoebe yet? So, the ph makes thesound, Phoebe. And both the stressed  

  • and the unstressed syllables in this name  have the same vowel, that is the E vowel.

  • Phoebe, Phoebe, Phoebe yet?

  • Phoebe yet?

  • No, nothing.

  • No, nothing. Uhuuhuh. If we slow that downyou would really hear that shape of stress,  

  • no, nothing. So two up down shapes  of stress, we have the oh diphthong,  

  • she makes a little bit relaxed, it's not  no but more like no, no, no, no, nothing.

  • No, nothing.

  • Now here, the O, the letter O makes the uh as in  butter vowel. So, even though it looks like n-o,  

  • n-o, the pronunciation would be the samethat is not true. No, nothing. Now, t-h-i-n-g,  

  • she does not make that an NG ending, she  doesn't say nothing, she says nothing,  

  • nothing. So, making the NG ending just  an N ending, ih as in sit n and nothing.

  • Nothing.

  • I hope she's okay.

  • Okay, so Monica's response. Four wordstwo of them as stressed. Which do you  

  • think are longer and up down shape of  stress or a down up shape of stress?

  • I hope she's okay.

  • I hope she's. Uhuhuh. Definitely hear that pitch  change. I hope she's. And then we have okay. Also  

  • an up down shape of stress there. So, we have hope  and K. Now, the word I, that's the I diphthong.  

  • It's unstressed here, I don't really hear  her pronouncing both of those sounds, I.

  • I hope she's.

  • It's more like a, a, I hope,  I hope, I hope she's okay.  

  • So, ,aybe more like the ah as in father said  very, very quickly. I hope, I hope she's okay.

  • I hope she's okay.

  • Hope she's. So, let's talk about  our p. This is a stop consonant,  

  • hope. A stop consonant is a stop of air and  a release. But it's really common in stop  

  • consonants not to make the release when  the next sound is a consonant. Here the  

  • next sound is the sh consonant. So it's not  hope she's. But it's just hope she's, hope,  

  • my lips come together for the P but I skip  the release rather than that escape of air,  

  • we go right into the sh consonant, hope she's.  But there is that little tiny lift break, that's  

  • the stop of the stop consonant as my lips come  together. Hope she's. I hope she's, I hope she's.

  • I hope she's --

  • I hope she's okay.

  • Okay, okay. This is a word that  can have first syllable stress,  

  • okay. Or second syllable stressokay. She's doing second.

  • she's okay.

  • Yeah, I know exactly what she's going through.

  • Yeah, yeah. Up down shape of stress

  • Yeah, --

  • I know exactly what she's going through.

  • Yeah, I know exactly. So, more stress on  our verb. I know exactly on our adverb.

  • I know exactly --

  • I know exactly what she's going through.

  • Going through, what she's going through, then  one more stressed syllable on the verb going.  

  • So everything links together  smoothly even the word yeah,  

  • links right into the I, he doesn't  do a break there, yeah, yeah I know.

  • Yeah, I know exactly what she's going through.

  • Maybe you noticed this, maybe you  already know it but this word is  

  • pronounced the exact same way as this word.  N consonant, O diphthong. Know. Yeah I know.

  • Yeah, I know --

  • exactly what she's going through.

  • Exactly. Now this is an interesting wordWe have the letter X. That always makes two  

  • sounds. In this case egz, G and Z, exactly. Then  we have a K, the letter C makes K, t-l-y. So,  

  • when t comes between two consonants, it's really  common in American Englsih to drop it and that's  

  • what he does, he does not say exactly. You  will find very few people pronouncing it that  

  • way. Exactly, exactly with no T is a much more  common pronunciation. Exactly, I know exactly.

  • I know exactly.

  • I know exactly what she's going through.

  • Exactly what she's, what she's, what she's, what she's.

  • Do you notice I'm not saying what she's?  It's a very quick stop. It's an unstressed word  

  • said very quickly. What she's, what she's,  what she's, what, what. I'm debating, do I  

  • want to write that with a schwa, what, what or  uh as in butter, what, what. Let's listen again.

  • I know exactly what she's --

  • I think I'm going to write it with the  schwa, I think it's just, there's not much  

  • of a vowel there but what, what, what, what  she's, what she's. What she's, what she's.

  • what she's --

  • going through.

  • Going through, going through. So one  peak of stress and the rest of the  

  • sentence just comes as the intonation drops  off. Now, Rachel up here took an IG ending,  

  • ing ending and made it an IN ending. He's  doing that too, rather than saying going,  

  • he's saying goin', goin'. Unstressed syllable  as it as in sit and going through, going, going,  

  • going through. Through, this word can be trickywe have an unvoiced th with an R. now the tongue  

  • does have to come through, the teeth here. But  it's just the very tip. Make sure there's not  

  • tension so the air can just flow really freelyGoing through, going through, th, th, th, through.

  • going through.

  • And all of these letters o-u-g-h just  make the ooh vowel. Going through.

  • going through.

  • How do you know --

  • How do you know. She's stressing  you, we see that with a hand gesture,  

  • how do, how do you know. A little bit  of stress on our question word. That's  

  • really typical to have the question  word be stressed. How do you know?

  • How do you know --

  • How do you know, how do you know. So  do and more said a little bit more  

  • quickly but all of this really links together  smoothly. How do you know, how do you know.

  • How do you know --

  • Exactly what she's going through?

  • Know exactly. So, we have the oh diphthong,  

  • the ih as in sit vowel. Know exactly. It can help  you think a w glide consonant between the two to  

  • help you link those smoothly. Know exactlyNow, wait. Is she saying the T in exactly?

  • Exactly --

  • Exactly, exactly, no, she doesn't. Like  I said, that's really uncommon. I only  

  • know one person our of everybody  I know who says that T. Exactly.

  • Exactly --

  • What she's going through.

  • Exactly what she's going through? Exactly.  

  • Stress on the middle syllable there. How do  you know exactly what she's going through?

  • How do you know exactly what she's going through?

  • Exactly what she's going through. So, what  she's again unstressed said quickly stop T,  

  • what she's, what she's, what  she's, what she's going through.

  • exactly what she's going through?

  • Now, Monica does not make this goin',  

  • she makes it going with an ng consonantSo, when we have an ng consonant, ih as  

  • in sit ng. This NG sound actually changes the  vowel sound. So, it actually sounds more like  

  • e, going, going, rather than e, e.  So if we change the NG to an N,