Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Thank you so much to the SENS Research Foundation for sponsoring this video! I asked Triangle Bob to design what he thinks humans will look like in the year 2200. He's been at it for like five hours now, so I'm just gonna see what he's done. For the Love of Animator! What the heck is that? Uh I..I mean Wow, Triangle Bob! They look great! I see it says here that you've also added super mitochondria to make them live longer? Okay, we'll have to explore this further! Cue the intro! Hey there! Welcome to Life Noggin! Turns out Triangle Bob was onto something with his mitochondrial Improvement DLC! A super small tweak can have a really huge impact on human evolution. Yeah it's a pretty big deal, but to explain it further we need to travel inside the body. Let's visit your body's power plant, shall we? Seat belts everyone! I've always wanted to say that. Oh, wow! Here it is the city of mitotropolis! If there's anything you humans remember from biology class, it's that mitochondria is the PowerHouse of the cell, but what does that really mean? After you digest your food the byproducts make their way into your cells, and eventually into the mitochondria. Here, they are broken down and made into a chemical called Adenosine Triphosphate, or ATP. This is what your cells use to store and transport the energy they need to function. Uh oh! This isn't good! That process created waste products called free radicals! These guys can damage important parts of your cells like mitochondrial DNA. I mean, look at the mess they're making! Normally, when we talk about DNA, we mean the DNA in your chromosomes, which are located in the cell's nucleus, but mitochondria are really unique in that they have a small amount of their own DNA, and I mean a really small amount. There used to be a whole lot more actually, but as humans evolved the majority of them moved inside the nucleus, where it's a lot safer. Scientists believe that the remaining ones are the most essential to the energy production process. For instance, 13 of these genes create the chemicals needed to make the wonderful ATP. We have to protect those guys. So here's the issue happening inside you, the beautiful flesh monster watching this video. When mitochondrial DNA is damaged by free radicals, it can delete portions of the genetic code, making it impossible to create these chemicals and make energy. But the mutant mitochondria do keep making free radicals, which can cause oxidative stress, leading to diseases like cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, as well as aging. Humans disliked that. Now, how do we even fix this? While we can't prevent mitochondrial DNA from getting damaged, scientists are finding ways to keep the mitochondria working properly by taking Evolution into their own hands! Like the mitochondrial genes that already migrated to the nucleus on their own, scientists are creating backup copies of the 13 essential genes in the mitochondrial DNA. They're putting them in the nucleus as well, where they're protected. Don't worry these backups will keep things running smoothly for longer. One group of researchers has already begun working on this and created backup copies of two of the 13 genes, which they're testing in mice! If this works out we could be seeing dramatic drops in cancer rates, age-related diseases, and yeah, it'll slow down the aging process. Humans like that. To learn more about this cool tech, go check out our sponsor over at the SENS Research Foundation. They're doing amazing work in this field, and they definitely should get your support! So has there been anything you learned in school that you really want us to go into more detail about? What would you love more information on? Let me know in the comments section below! Click here to watch this video about glowing bodies or click here to watch this video! Subscribe and click the Bell, so you're notified every time we upload a new video. And click the like button because it really helps us out! You can also check out the team at lifespan that powers life Noggin down in the description! As always, my name is Blocko. This has been Life Noggin. Don't forget to keep on thinking!