Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Part of an abandoned rocket is thought to have hit the Moon last Friday according to scientists. Hello, this is News Review from BBC Learning English and I'm Rob. And joining me today to look at the language from the headlines about this story is Roy. Hello Roy. Hello Rob and hello everybody. If you would like to test yourself on the vocabulary around this story, all you need to do is head to our website bbclearningenglish.com but now let's hear more about this story from Professor Hugh Lewis, a professor at the University of Southampton who's talking about space debris. So, the story is this: part of a discarded rocket has most likely impacted on the far side of the moon. Now, it isn't clear at this time who this rocket belongs to. The effects of the impact on the Moon are likely to be quite small and minor, but interestingly the European Space Agency estimates that there are now 36,500 pieces of space junk, which is a word we use — or phrase we use — to say space rubbish, larger than 10cm. Wow. Well, we have three words and expressions from the news headlines about this story. What are those words and expressions please, Roy? We have 'rogue', 'collision course' and 'calculate'. That's 'rogue', 'collision course' and 'calculate'. OK. Let's go to that first headline then please. OK. So, our first headline comes from Space.com and it reads: So, that's 'rogue' — describes something that behaves abnormally, often in a way that causes damage. OK. So, 'rogue' is being used as an adjective here. It's spelt R-O-G-U-E and it talks about something that is behaving unexpectedly. It's describing something that's not acting in its normal way and the result of these 'rogue' actions usually leads to some kind of damage. And in this headline, we're using the word 'rogue' to describe the actual rocket, yeah? Yeah, we are. So, for example, the rocket was expected to do one thing or this... the part of the rocket was expected to do one thing and it's behaving in an unexpected way — as in it's now going to collide or has collided with the Moon. We use this word 'rogue' quite often to talk about objects or people. For example, a 'rogue' employee: if you have a rogue employee, they're maybe doing something that's going to cause damage or dangerous actions. For example, they may be trying to sabotage or steal secrets from the company. If you have a 'rogue' company or a 'rogue' firm, maybe they are behaving or trading in a bad way, selling bad products, for example. We also hear it when we talk about secret agents. You can have a 'rogue' secret agent or a 'rogue' spy. Maybe they're selling secrets to the enemy. This all sounds very negative. Is 'rogue' a negative word or can it be used in a positive way? Yeah, quite... quite... quite commonly it is used negatively. You can also, in some instances, use it positively. For example, police officers: you have some police officers and they're given some orders, but they decide to go against their orders. They go 'rogue' and they maybe save people from a building. So, they... they... they... they don't follow their orders and they go and help other people. They... they go 'rogue'. And we can talk about 'rogue' countries as well. Yes, you can. A country that's not behaving in an... in an expected way — in a normal way. And the verb commonly used with 'rogue' is 'go rogue': to 'go rogue'. OK. Thanks for that, Roy. Let's have a summary: We've been to space before in News Review. Last time we went there was to find some space wine. Tell us more, Roy. All you need to do to watch this story is click the link in the description below. Great. OK. Let's have a look at your next news headline please. OK. So, our next headline comes from Euronews and it reads: So, that's 'collision course' — on a path which will result in impact. So, a two-word expression. First word: 'collision' — C-O-L-L-I-S-I-O-N. Second word: 'course' — C-O-U-R-S-E. And it means on a path, or going in a direction, that will result in an accident and this expression is commonly used with the preposition 'on': 'on a collision course'. OK. Now, I've heard this expression used in the movies, in a kind of action film or a disaster movie, when for example two aircraft are heading towards each other: they're on a 'collision course'. Is that right? Yeah, that's right. So, for example, one object is potentially moving — like a plane — in the direction of something — for example, a mountain — and if they don't change their direction, if they don't change their way, they are on a 'collision course' and they will hit. It could also be two objects moving towards each other that are going to have an accident and we commonly use it for talking about things like cars, trains, moving objects. What about two people? If they're going to head towards each other, bump into each other, are they on a 'collision course'? Is that a kind of literal meaning? Well, I suppose you could if they've both got, like, trays of drinks and they can't see and it's going to, you know... they're both going towards each other and they're going to hit, but it's not common that we would use... say they're on a 'collision course'. We do use it more non-literally, when we're talking about two people who are maybe heading towards a big argument or a fight. You could say they are on a 'collision course'. OK. Unlike us, Roy, of course — never on a 'collision course'. Never. OK. Thank you for that. Let's have a summary: In our 6 Minute English programme we talked about astronauts possibly going on strike. How can we find out more, Roy? All you need to do is click the link in the description below. Yeah. Great. Let's have a look at your next headline now please. OK. So, our next headline comes from the Daily Sabah and it reads: So, the word is 'calculate' — come to a conclusion. Yes. So, this word is 'calculate' and it is spelt C-A-L-C-U-L-A-T-E and it means arrive at a conclusion or understanding. Now, 'calculate' — this is something... something to do with maths, isn't it? Adding up numbers. Yeah, quite commonly. So, we 'calculate' sums or mathematical equations. So, for example, 1 + 1... I calculate that and it is... 2. It often involves numbers or information. Now, a synonym of this and it's more informal — a phrasal verb — is to 'work out'. So, you 'work out' an equation or you 'work out' a sum. And if people can't 'work out' a sum in their heads, they use a 'calculator'. They do indeed. I use 'calculators' all the time. I am terrible at maths, which is why I said 1 + 1! I'm an English teacher, not a maths teacher. But, yeah, that's right: you use a 'calculator' to work that out. Now, in the headline 'calculate' is being used, as I said, as a verb and it means to reach an understanding or to arrive at a conclusion. And it's probably involving maths; they were working out the angle or the speed of the rocket. So, we also use it to talk about a person. We do, but it's a very different meaning. You can say somebody is a 'calculating' person or they are 'calculating' and it's usually negative. It means they're maybe plotting and scheming. They're trying to control a situation for their benefit and, as I say, it's usually negative. Yes, very good. OK. Let's have a summary: OK. Roy, it's time now for you to recap the words and expressions that we've talked about today please. Yes, we had 'rogue' — describes something that behaves abnormally, often in a way that causes damage. We had 'collision course' — on a path which will result in impact. And we had 'calculate' — come to a conclusion. Now, if you want to test yourself on the understanding of this vocabulary, we have a quiz that's on our website at bbclearningenglish.com and that's also the place to go to to check out all our other Learning English materials. And of course we're all across social media. Well, that's all for today's News Review. Thank you for watching and we'll see you next time. Bye for now. Bye!