Placeholder Image

Subtitles section Play video

  • Films are made up of sequences.

  • Sequences are made up of scenes.

  • And scenes are made up of shots.

  • In our last episode,

  • we discussed the types of camera rigs

  • used to move the camera.

  • ♪ ♪

  • But in this episode,

  • we'll be going over what those movements are.

  • And the stories they tell.

  • This is episode six of "The Shot List".

  • Camera movement.

  • There are countless variations of camera movement

  • each with their own language and purpose.

  • A filmmaker who understands this language

  • can create dynamic and compelling work.

  • We'll be examining different types of camera movements.

  • Along the way, we'll be updating a shot list of these camera movements

  • in a StudioBinder shot list.

  • Which you can download and reference in your upcoming projects.

  • Now, let's get moving.

  • Let's begin with a shot that has no camera movement at all.

  • This is the Static Shot.

  • Static shots are commonly captured

  • by locking the camera to a tripod in a fixed position.

  • The result is a shot with zero camera movement.

  • This is great for dialogue.

  • "- What business is it of yours where I'm from...

  • ...friendo?"

  • Precise painterly compositions.

  • "- Redmond. Nice to see you."

  • Or shots that allow an actor's performance to shine.

  • "- I'm funny, how? Funny like a clown? I amuse you?

  • I make you laugh? I'm here to f*cking amuse you?

  • What do you mean, funny? Funny how? How am I funny?

  • - Get the f*ck out of here, Tommy.

  • - Motherf*cker! I almost had him! I almost had him!

  • You stuttering prick, you!"

  • Sometimes filmmakers use static shots to trap a character

  • and suggest their helplessness.

  • Like this moment from "Dunkirk".

  • In this scene from "12 Years of Slave",

  • the static shot holds on Solomon's lynching.

  • He is helpless

  • and we are not allowed to look away.

  • Its cruelty is amplified by stillness.

  • A moving camera

  • might've matched Solomon's panic,

  • but this static shot

  • with its neutral and cold perspective

  • is far more unsettling.

  • Let's move on to our next camera movement.

  • The Pan.

  • A pan rotates the camera horizontally,

  • Left or Right,

  • while remaining in a fixed location.

  • Pans can be used to follow a character's actions.

  • Or be used to reveal information.

  • Which is something, Wes Anderson does frequently.

  • "- 4 minutes, 48 seconds.

  • We're all dead. Burned to a crisp."

  • Moving on.

  • A slow pan builds anticipation.

  • While a rapid pan heightens the energy of a shot.

  • These are known as Whip Pans.

  • ♪ ♪

  • Director Damien Chazelle uses whip pans

  • to create relationships between characters.

  • In "La La Land", he amps up the energy in the scene.

  • While underscoring the growing synergy

  • between Sebastian and Mia.

  • He uses the same technique

  • for a different effect in "Whiplash".

  • No pun intended.

  • ♪ ♪

  • In the final scene, whip pans are precisely timed

  • with the give and take of the music.

  • ♪ ♪

  • Accenting the combative relationship

  • between Andrew and Fletcher.

  • To learn more about whip pans,

  • check out our video,

  • where we break down how to use them to build energy

  • and transition through time and space.

  • Panning is ideal for horizontal movement.

  • But what about the vertical axis?

  • The tilt.

  • A tilt directs the camera upward or downward.

  • Filmmakers use tilts to capture the verticality of a film's world.

  • This can be used to give a character dominance.

  • Or vulnerability.

  • "- Yes, we're men.

  • Men is what we are."

  • Similar to a pan, a tilt can reveal information.

  • Like a character.

  • Setting.

  • Or scale.

  • ♪ ♪

  • "- Who are the people?

  • - Projections in my subconscious.

  • - Yours. - Yes."

  • In "Inception", Ariadne tests how much of the dream world, she can distort.

  • "- My question is what happens when you start messing with the physics of it?"

  • ♪ ♪

  • Nolan tilts up to capture the awe

  • and scale of this spectacular moment.

  • ♪ ♪

  • The visceral effect of being on the street,

  • looking upward at such a spectacle

  • is accentuated with a simple camera tilt.

  • "- It's something, isn't it?

  • - Yes, it is."

  • Switching our attention from upward or downward,

  • our next camera movement takes us inward.

  • Push In.

  • The push in shot

  • moves the camera towards a subject.

  • Pushing the camera is all about emphasizing a moment.

  • "- Get our informers to find out where it's going to be held."

  • A visual cue to the audience

  • that this is important.

  • "- ...it's a public place. A bar, a restaurant.

  • Some place where there are people, so I feel safe.

  • But if Clemenza can figure out a way

  • to have a weapon planted there for me

  • then I'll kill them both."

  • You can push in on an external detail, such as an object.

  • Or text.

  • In doing so, filmmakers can direct our attention to a specific detail.

  • Or it can capture a character thought process.

  • Like in this moment from "The Post",

  • when Ben comes to terms

  • with exposing the infamous Pentagon papers.

  • A Push-in is an effective way to communicate internal conflict.

  • Like in the iconic restaurant scene in "The Godfather".

  • Michael Corleone is about to kill a man who tried to kill his father.

  • "- Your father is in bad shape."

  • It will be a life changing decision.

  • A point of no return into the underworld.

  • "- This fighting has to end."

  • A slow push in towards Michael elevates the tension,

  • as we watch him wrestle with the consequences

  • and gathering the courage to pull the trigger.

  • Which leads us to our next camera movement,

  • the opposite of the push in

  • is the Pull Out.

  • Unlike pushing in,

  • pulling the camera deemphasizes the subject.

  • A sort of signal to disconnect from the characters.

  • It can unveil the context of a scene.

  • Its setting.

  • Or its characters.

  • As subjects grew smaller,

  • a pull out can detach us from a scene.

  • Or the entire film.

  • Like in the final shot from "Catch Me If You Can".

  • The same movement can also emphasize

  • negative emotions like isolation.

  • Or abandonment.

  • In this scene from "Joker",

  • we see Arthur at his most vulnerable.

  • This camera movement away from him

  • highlights his helplessness

  • and rather than push in to help us sympathize with Arthur

  • director Todd Phillips pulls away, abandoning him.

  • Our next movement directs our attention

  • without moving the camera at all.

  • Enter the Zoom.

  • A zoom may not be a camera movement per se,

  • but there is movement created in camera.

  • Zoom shots change the focal length of the camera's lens.

  • To zoom in.

  • Or zoom out.

  • Similar to pulling back a camera

  • zooming out can reveal the context around a subject.

  • Like this opening shot from "The Graduate".

  • Zooms are unique

  • because there is no equivalent in the human experience.

  • Like a push in,

  • we can physically move closer to a subject,

  • but our eyes can't zoom

  • making this camera movement unnatural.

  • "- Shouldn't we give him to the authorities or something?

  • - No."

  • It can also draw our attention to a specific detail.

  • Many horror, thriller films

  • use a slow zoom to create uneasiness.

  • "- You said she's a conduit. - That's right.

  • - What does that mean?

  • - A very powerful demonic has latched itself onto her."

  • And Stanley Kubrick is a master of this technique.

  • This iconic shot from "The Shining"

  • slowly zooms in to highlight

  • Jack's descent into madness.

  • The use of a zoom doesn't stop there.

  • A fast zoom is known as a Crash Zoom.

  • Crush zooms can often be used for either dramatic

  • or comedic effect.

  • In "Django Unchained",

  • Quentin Tarantino uses the crash zoom repeatedly.

  • For comedy.

  • "- Just seems like a good bit of fun."

  • Drama.

  • Or both.

  • "- No! Calvin!"

  • Now what happens when you pair the in-camera movement of a zoom

  • with physical movements of a camera?

  • It's none other then the Dolly Zoom.

  • A Dolly Zoom utilizes both a dolly movement

  • and lens zoom

  • to create something called the vertigo effect.

  • Named after its dramatic use in Hitchcock's "Vertigo".

  • A dolly zoom can be done two different ways.

  • The first is by dollying in

  • while zooming out.

  • This causes the background to grow in size

  • while maintaining the scale of the foreground.

  • This is commonly used to portray conflict in a shot

  • either internal.

  • "- It broke my heart to put that tumor in her head.

  • - What?"

  • Or external conflict.

  • The second way is by dollying out

  • while zooming in.

  • This causes the foreground subject to become dominant over the background.

  • The dolly zoom can be used to highlight a growing relationship

  • between two subjects.

  • Like in this scene from "Raging Bull"

  • where Scorsese slows everything down.

  • "- Come on. Come on."

  • The Dolly zoom pushes the crowd further into the background,

  • as we occupy Jake's POV

  • and battered tunnel vision.

  • We are no longer watching a fight.

  • We are in it.

  • In "Bohemian Rhapsody",

  • the dolly zoom draws the audience closer to Freddy

  • as a way to create intimacy

  • between one musician

  • and his adoring fans.

  • DP Newton Thomas Sigel

  • explains why they chose to use the dolly zoom for this shot.

  • "- The camera continues to come around him

  • and we're still in this wide lens.

  • So as we come around,

  • you can see that the audience is very far from him.

  • But now, he's beginning to come into his own.

  • The audience is coming into it.

  • And by using the dolly zoom,

  • we're bringing the audience closer and closer and closer.

  • Freddie is not getting any bigger in the frame,

  • but the audience is getting closer

  • simply by changing the focal length of the lens

  • and the proximity of the camera to the subject."

  • A dolly zoom can be a versatile choice

  • in any shot list

  • to convey either positive

  • or negative psychological effects.

  • Our next camera movement is a rotation known as

  • The Camera Roll.

  • A roll turns the camera on its long axis

  • while maintaining the direction of the lens.

  • A camera roll is disorienting,