Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles A portion of this video was sponsored by Google. Oceans produce more than half of our oxygen (shoutout phytoplankton!), absorb most of the heat from global warming, and covers 70% of our planet. But they're also changing faster than ever. So what will the ocean look like in 1000 or even 10,000 years from now? Let's start with 30 years from now. The number of fish in the sea has dropped by 50% since 1970s. So maybe you should consider settling down with that dud, boyfriend or girlfriend because honey, there's not plenty of fish in the sea anymore. In 30 years, there'll be more plastic in the ocean than fish by biomass, and species like sea bass, usually coming along north Carolina shores, will be up near New Jersey as marine life migrates to cooler waters. Sea levels have actually risen 5 to 8 inches in the last 100 years and continue to rise. By 2050, 190 million people will be facing a sinking city. Ho chi Minh City will be below sea level, Alexandria in Egypt under water, and Mumbai, one of the largest and most densely populated cities in the world, submerged. In just 30 years! Like I assume I'll still be alive to see this happen. Seawalls could help, but as one scientist, Benjamin Strauss, Climate Central's chief executive said, how deep a bowl do we want to live in? 100 years from now is where our most accurate scientific models predict until. But before we get to those predictions, I want to take a quick moment to thank today's sponsor: Google. They've made so many cool new things that have helped us learn, progress and get all that extra information into our tiny little brains, so I'm happy to have them sponsoring this portion of the video. Let's talk about three new features that I've been really excited. The first, I'm probably the most excited about, because not only does Google allow us to keep educating ourselves, but now you can use Google Lens to visually input your homework. From word problems to your toughest math questions, not only will Google help you find the answer, but they'll give you a step by step guide on how to get there. Now, the science nerd in me is also super pumped about the more than 2000 STEM concepts that Google has made available at the touch of a finger. You can now search for things like the Pythagorean theorem, the quadratic formula, even Ohm's Law. This would have saved me so much time in school, and 15 year old me is literally crying inside, but so happy for you. The second thing I want to tell you about is Google Hum to Search. You know when you have a tune stuck in your head and you just can't figure out what it is. Well now you can hum, whistle or sing it, and Google will find it for you right away. There's Hydrogen and Helium then Lithium, Beryllium. But none of you would have ever forgot that song, right? Okay, last feature I'm going to share is that Google has AR animals. You can use the Google app to see life-sized animals anywhere around you with augmented reality. Don't even have to go to the beach anymore to see a dolphin. I mean, imagine being able to see them up this close and move around them in augmented reality. So cool. Of course, who knows what's going on in the ocean anymore. So, thanks to Google for sponsoring this portion of the video and now back to oceans. 100 years from now, if carbon emissions keep going up, there'll be a 2 to 3 foot sea level rise. A major reason for this rising is thermal expansion. So warmer water actually takes up more space physically because of increased vibration. And yes, glaciers melting adds to this as well. And as the oceans heat up, the great conveyor belt is slowing down. This current carries warm water from the tropics to the poles and vice versa, insulating Europe and North America from wilder weather. If trends continue by 2100, the gulf stream will weaken by 34 to 45%. A weaker conveyor belt means hotter summers in Europe and fiercer storms in the US; it means profound large-scale impacts on the planet in terms of weather patterns, upending agricultural practices, biodiversity, and economic stability across the vast areas of the world. Not only does the ocean provide food, medicine, mineral and energy resources, it also supports jobs and national economies, serves as a highway to transport goods and people, and plays a role in national security. A slower conveyor belt also means that silt and debris get carried and deposited differently. And over centuries of this, the landscape of the ocean floor will change to a muddy mess. Ever heard of a seashell? Say bye bye! As we release more carbon dioxide, and the ocean's pH continues to decrease, animals that make shells like clams and oysters will struggle. Predictions for sea carbonate and pH conditions in 2100 showed that animals like the sea butterfly or pteropod, would lose their shell within 45 days. And the loss of these shells and skeletons would decrease the chalky layer of mineral that's there now, meaning more muddy mess vibes. And if we stay on the same emissions path by 2300, there will be a 26 foot rise in sea level. In 500 years from now, the sea could be suffocating, literally. In the 1950s, there were around 50 dead zones in the ocean where oxygen was so low that nothing can survive. Today there's around 500 dead zones in the ocean, and they're growing, covering millions of square miles. Warmer oceans hold less available oxygen, but as body temperature increases in animals, their metabolism increases and they actually require more oxygen. Fishing and fish farming, support the livelihoods and families of some 660 to 880 million people. That's 12% of the world's population. Any change to the ocean ecosystem has a direct impact on so many people. Large areas of the ocean could also be stuck in layers, like a cake in a process called stratification. The ocean does this naturally, but with currents, there's usually mixing of the surface and deep water, which circulates heat and nutrients. In fact, the ocean absorbs over 90% of the heat and approximately 30% of carbon dioxide emissions produced by human activities. As the surface temperature continues to increase rapidly, it becomes less dense and less able to absorb carbon dioxide. And the greater the density difference between the surface and deep ocean, the slower and more difficult the mixing becomes. This creates a negative feedback loop. With less mixing, more carbon stays in the atmosphere, which warms the earth's surface, which prevents more mixing and on and on. Stratification has increased 5% in the last 60 years and continues to grow. 1000 years from now, since the ocean floor is spreading at a fast rate, 5 centimeters a year in the mid Atlantic ridge, in a millennia, it will have spread a whopping 46 meters or 154 feet. And in a scenario with no reductions in emissions, scientists predict that the entire Greenland ice sheet will likely melt, causing 5 to 7 meters or 17 to 23 feet of sea level rise. In 1000 years, the oceans may look like this. But there are sponges over a mile beneath the surface that are thousands of years old. They're one of the earliest animals to evolve, and my guess is that in 1000 years they'll still be going strong. But what about 10,000 years in the future? Scientists predict that if we just keep pumping out CO2, the earth will be 7 degrees warmer, meaning the oceans would rise a whopping 70 meters. There'd be almost no mountain glaciers left in temperate latitudes. Greenland would give up all of its ice, and Antarctica would give up almost 45 meters worth of sea level rise. To put this in perspective, a simple 10 meter increase would displace more than 630 million people, nearly 10% of the world's population. At 25 meters, 20% of humanity is left homeless. Of course, our most accurate predictions, really only go to around that 100 year mark, not because we can't imagine that far into the future, but because there are so many variables that could change between now and then, and that's about as far as our computer models go without creating a ton of error. But it will depend a lot on our own actions as a species, and how we take care of this planet that we're inhabiting. Some of the carbon we're releasing right now could be around for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. And whether we take the necessary steps to create a revitalized and healthy ocean, not just in 1000 or 10000 years, but even in 30 years, is up to us. Be sure to like this video, subscribe for more science videos and we'll see you next time. Peace!