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  • Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam.

  • Today, as in response to some requests, I'm

  • going to give you a few vocabulary words or a few words-sorry-about political views. Now,

  • before I start, I just want to make sure we understand: This is just about English. We're

  • not having any political discussions, here. This is meant to help you read newspapers,

  • watch TV broadcasts, listen to radio broadcasts about political news, and these are words

  • that you will see quite often when you're reading these things or watching these programs.

  • Okay? So, we're going to look at a few common words that come up when we're talking about

  • political views. Now, "political views" are basically opinions about how politics should

  • run, how governments should run or be run, etc.

  • So first we're going to look at the three main types of government.

  • There are "democracy", "authoritarianism", and "dictatorship".

  • "Democracy" is a process by which several parties... Okay?

  • Several parties, each one has its own leaders and its own members, and they compete for

  • the votes of the public. You have several to choose from, the public chooses. The one

  • that gets the most votes or wins somehow the election in their system, they lead the country

  • for a specified period of time. And then you have another election, you can choose the

  • government again, you can choose another government. You can do whatever you need to do.

  • "Authoritarianism" is a system by which only one party... Or "in which" I should say. Only

  • one party controls the government. So, you don't really have any choice, and the elections

  • are not... If there are elections, are not very legitimate. There's one party, they are

  • the controlling power, they make the decisions, everybody does what they want them to do.

  • "...ism". I'm just going to mention this. You're going to hear a lot of ism's when you're

  • hearing about politics. Okay? It just means you're taking the concept of whatever the

  • word is before it. So: "ism" is more about the concept of whatever.

  • "Dictatorship", this is a form of government where one person controls the government and

  • has all the power, all the decision-making power. We're not going to get into the details

  • of how each of these types of government rules or runs the country they're in, but we're

  • just going to talk about what they are very generally.

  • Next, so here we're getting more into the specific views that people have. Most people

  • are "Liberal" or "Conservative". Now, you're going to hear these words a lot. In America,

  • for example, you hear about the Democrats and the Republicans. Generally, the Democrats

  • are Liberal, the Republicans are Conservative. Liberal government or Liberal politicians

  • believe in the individual. They want every individual to have an opportunity to succeed.

  • They want, basically, to help everyone improve their lives somehow. Conservatives, on the

  • other hand, they're more about everybody takes care of themselves. Sorry, Liberals, they

  • want the government to help the individuals; Conservatives want the individuals to help

  • themselves. And "Conservatives" comes from the word "conserve", there would be an "e"

  • here. They want to keep traditions, they want to keep or maintain values, they don't like

  • change. Liberals, on the other hand, want to change all the time to meet the needs of

  • the people. More good for more people, as it were.

  • Now, if you hear about "left-wing" or "right-wing" or "centrist", you're talking about the spectrum.

  • The spectrum is basically the range of political views. You have the far left-wing, you have

  • the far right-wing, and you have the people in the centre; they're not really right, they're

  • not really left. Although, they generally lean. "Lean" means "rooop", I'm leaning to

  • the right or I'm leaning to the left. So, even centrists, they're usually centre-right

  • or centre-left, it means they're a little bit more to one side than the other, but generally,

  • they're... They want a bit of a mix. Left-wing politicians or left-wing views generally go

  • with Liberals. Right-wing views or right-wing politicians generally go the idea of Conservatives.

  • Centrists want a little bit of a mix. They will go with whoever will do the best benefit

  • for everybody.

  • Now, in terms of how to make changes or how to interpret laws or how to create systems,

  • you have different types of people. Again, you have "moderate", who want moderate changes,

  • want moderate governing powers, "radicals" and "extremists". "Moderate" basically means

  • they want a reasonable amount of government interference; not too much, not too little.

  • They want the government to take care of everybody, but also leave everybody a little bit to their

  • own things, as it were. Radicals want very major change. They want big changes, they

  • want radical shifts, or they want what they want very strongly. Very similar to extremist,

  • "extremist" means there's only one way, and that's it. Nothing else will do.

  • They do not compromise.

  • "Compromise" means I'll give a little bit, you give a little bit, and we'll

  • meet somewhere in the middle. Extremists don't compromise; it's this way or no way. Okay?

  • That's the idea of "extremist", it comes from the word "extreme", as much as possible or

  • as little as possible, depending on the case.

  • Now, this is an excellent word, you have "spin" and you have "spin doctors" we call them.

  • This is a bit of a slang expression. "Spin" basically means spin. Like a record, you put

  • a record and it spins. So: "to spin" means to take let's say bad news, and turn it around

  • and make it sound like it's actually good. So, politicians are very good at this. Good

  • politicians are very good at spin. If I say something bad about a politician or if I uncover

  • some history about this politician that's really bad, he or she or their... Basically

  • their advisors will take that information, they'll turn it around, and use it against

  • their opponent, and they'll make themselves look good and they'll make somebody else look

  • bad. They will spin attention, the public's attention away to something else or someone

  • else. That's why they are called "spin doctors", they operate on the public mind. They're professionals.

  • Okay? So this is just an introduction to some politics. We'll do another lesson again about

  • specific types of governance and other things that are important for talking about politics.

  • If you want to practice these words and make sure you understand them, there are some

  • sample sentences on the quiz on www.engvid.com.

  • You can ask questions. But please, let's make

  • sure we understand: This is just learning English so you can read newspapers, you can

  • watch broadcasts. Let's not start a political discussion on the comment section... In the

  • comment section at engVid.

  • One thing I will say before we're done, here, politics, talking about politics is very dangerous.

  • Make sure that the people you're discussing politics with want to discuss politics. Don't

  • force your views on anyone, don't let anyone force their views on you. Okay?

  • Subscribe to my YouTube channel when you get a chance, and come back again.

  • See you soon. Bye.

Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam.

Subtitles and vocabulary

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B1 spin wing politics government political generally

Vocabulary: Talking about POLITICS in English

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    Summer posted on 2021/06/21
Video vocabulary