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  • Hello. Welcome to News Review from BBC Learning English. I'm Tom.

  • Joining me this morning is Catherine. Hi Catherine.

  • Hello Tom. Hello everybody. Yes, there is a new report which is asking

  • if the health of Olympic athletes is at risk because of climate change.

  • And don't forgetif you want to test yourself on today's language,

  • we have a quiz at the website bbclearningenglish.com.

  • Now, let's hear more about this story from a BBC News report:

  • Yes, there's a new report out about the effects of climate change

  • on the health of Olympic athletes.

  • Now, it turns out that the temperature has risen in Tokyo

  • three times as much as it has in other places around the world.

  • This causes extreme heat,

  • which the report says will put the health of Olympic athletes at risk.

  • OK. And we've got three words and expressions that

  • our audience can use to talk about this story today, right?

  • Right! We have: 'mean', 'tame' and 'adversely'.

  • 'Mean', 'tame', 'adversely'.

  • Catherine, let's have a look at your first piece of language please.

  • Yes, we're in the United States. We are looking at part of the

  • story and it goes like thisfrom Newswise:

  • 'Mean' – average. What can you tell us about 'mean', Catherine?

  • OK. I'm actually not going to tell you, Tom,

  • because I don't like you very much...

  • What do you 'mean'?? That's a bit 'mean'!

  •   Mean, mean, mean, mean, mean!

  • OK. So, there's clearly a lot of 'meanings' of this word 'mean'.

  • This word 'mean' represents many things.

  • What does it represent here, Catherine?

  • OK. Today we're looking at 'mean' in a mathematical sense.

  • 'Mean' is a mathematical term and it means average.

  • Average. OK. And here it's an adjective, right?

  • Because we're talking about the 'mean annual temperature'

  • or the 'average annual temperatures'.

  • Yes, it's an adjective, spelt: M-E-A-N.

  • And we can also use it as a noun. You can talk about 'the mean',

  • which means the average. So, what's all this average about?

  • Well, let's give you a demonstration with Rob and his biscuit consumption.

  • I was measuring his biscuit consumption. I did an observation

  • study of him and I discovered that on Monday he ate five biscuits,

  • on Tuesday he ate four biscuits and on Wednesday he ate three biscuits.

  • So, that's twelve biscuits total, right?

  • Yes, but I divided that by the number of days that I was doing my study on,

  • and that makes an average, or a 'mean', of four biscuits:

  • his daily consumption was a 'mean' four biscuits.

  • So, the 'mean' value is four, or the average value is four.

  • Or we could just say, 'The mean is four.' Cool, OK.

  • I mean, this is all good, this mathematical talk,

  • but why is it important that people know this?

  • Well, it's important if you're studying mathematics or if you're,

  • you know, working in that field, the word 'mean' is used frequently.

  • Average is your everyday English term.

  • It's good to know both of them because you will see both

  • terminologies, and also if you're doing an exam such as IELTS,

  • it's good to show off your English and ensure that you know these words.

  • You can show off that you know all the 'meanings' of the word 'mean',

  • if you know what I 'mean'. OK. Let's...

  • Thank you very much, Catherine. Let's move onto our summary slide please:

  • So, we've seen that 'mean' can have many meanings,

  • but sometimes people can have many meanings as well.

  • Phil, my colleague, did a show about this, right Catherine?

  • He did, because it turns out that people don't always 'mean' what

  • you think they 'mean', so he did a show called What They Really Mean.

  • And you can find out what they really mean by clicking the link.

  • OK. Wonderful. Right, great! Catherine,

  • let's have a look at your second piece of language today please.

  • Yes, we're in the Daily Mail here in the UK nowthe headline:

  • It's actually quite a long headline;

  • I've just given you the first half there.

  • Fantastic. OK. So, 'tame' – control something that was once wild.

  • What can you tell us about this word, Catherine?

  • OK. So, it's a verb: 'to tame' – T-A-M-E.

  • And we often use this when we mean to control or domesticate a wild animal.

  • ...OK. Can you... so, 'tame' is to make something that was wild,

  • sort of, controllable; can you give us an example of this?

  • Well, I can actually. Funnily enough,

  • there was a bird who used to live in the garden,

  • but it started coming into the house and it became, kind of,

  • more and more used to humans, and in the end this bird lived in the house.

  • It was a wild bird – a blackbird.

  • It ate with the family, it slept in the house, it was actually, you know,

  • living with us and lost its fear of humans. So, it was pretty 'tame'.

  • A 'tame' bird.

  • So, an animal can 'be tame'; or to make an animal 'tame',

  • we need 'to tame' it. Are there any other ways that we can use this word?

  • Well, it's not just for animals; it's for anything that's,

  • kind of, hard to control and then you get it under control. So,

  • a lot of us have had problems with our lockdown hair, haven't we Tom?

  • I don't know what you mean, Catherine...!

  • Getting wilder and wilder. And we've had...

  • you know, we have to 'tame' our wild and crazy hair.

  • That's one way: you often talk about 'taming' hair.

  • You can 'tame' a toddler or a child, you know. We don't actually

  • kind of, you knowdo anything; it's more a case of socialising.

  • So, we can use it in anything that's a little bit out of control:

  • you can use the word 'to tame' to bring something under control.

  • So, something that's not wild is 'tame', and you can also use this

  • in a negative way, can't you? Like if something's not very exciting.

  • Yeah, you can. You know, if you go to the

  • cinema and you're expecting a really exciting action film,

  • and it's actually not that excitingthe effects aren't that good,

  • the action's a bit underwhelming, a bit boring

  • you can say: 'Well, that was a bit tame.'

  • A bit 'tame', right? OK. Great.

  • So, hopefully you guys aren't finding this episode of

  • News Review a bit 'tame'... No, it's wild!

  • And to make sure of that, let's move on to our next slide:

  • OK. We were just talking about animals that live with humans.

  • We have an episode of Lingohack,

  • which addresses some problems to do with this, right Catherine?

  • Yes, it's all about the trade in baby elephants between zoos,

  • and to find out more about that story just click the link.

  • Great. OK. Let's have a look at that next article please.

  • Yes, we're in the United States now, with CNN.

  • We have a snippet from an article and it goes like this:

  • 'Adversely' – negatively.

  • Catherine, what can you tell us about 'adversely'?

  • OK. Well, we spell it: A-D-V-E-R-S-E-L-Y.

  • It's an adverb and it means the same as negatively.

  • If something's 'adversely' affected or 'adversely' impacted,

  • it's negatively impacted or affected.

  • So, the athletes... So, what this sentence is saying is that the

  • athletes in Tokyo could be negatively affected by the heat, right?

  • Yes... exactly. Bad things will happen as a result of the heat.

  • So, they could experience 'adverse' effects, right?

  • That's right, yes: 'adverse' effects.

  • Yes, and we alsothat's the adjective form: A-D-V-E-R-S-E.

  • We have a noun form: 'adversity',

  • which is... it means negativity.

  • Negativity, yes.

  • So, I suppose if the athletes in the Olympics are met with 'adversity',

  • it meanskind ofnegativity or negative conditions.

  • Definitely, yes. And that's a very nice little fixed phrase:

  • 'to be met with adversity' means to experience negative conditions.

  • And we do have one other noun form,

  • right, which can be used to describe a person.

  • Yes, 'adversary': somebody who is your opponent,

  • either in a competition or just generally something who you...

  • somebody who you're always, kind of, up againstcompeting with.

  • Adversaryyour opponent.

  • So, one of my British sporting heroes, Tyson Fury, the boxer

  • he would go in the ring to compete against his adversaryhis opponent.

  • Yes... Good example. Great. OK.

  • Now, before we 'adversely' affect this broadcast,

  • let's take a look at our summary slide please:

  • Wonderful. Catherine, can you recap today's vocabulary for us please?

  • Of course. We had: 'mean' – average.

  • 'Tame' – control something which was once wild.

  • And 'adversely', which means negatively.

  • OK. Don't forgetif you want to test yourself on today's vocabulary,

  • we have a quiz at the website, which is bbclearningenglish.com,

  • and I'm sure you know that we are all over social

  • media as well, so do get in touch. That's it from us today.

  • Thanks for joining us and goodbye.

  • Goodbye!

Hello. Welcome to News Review from BBC Learning English. I'm Tom.

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Olympics: Tokyo too hot for athletes? - News Review

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    林宜悉 posted on 2021/06/01
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