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  • There are no federally mandated training minimums for police officers

  • in the United States.

  • So, there isn't a national standard.

  • And so, I mean, there are 18,000 police departments and law

  • enforcement agencies in the United States.

  • They are all doing drastically different things.

  • Training requirements for police vary state by state, sometimes even

  • region to region, municipality to municipality.

  • But overwhelmingly, officers are being trained locally.

  • And oftentimes, even though there might be some best standards or

  • best practices, those aren't required.

  • One study showed that out of 80 countries, the United States has the

  • lowest police training requirements by far, excluding Iraq and

  • Afghanistan. After protesters around the country called for justice

  • following the killing of George Floyd in Minnesota.

  • President Trump signed an executive order encouraging police

  • departments to improve training.

  • Under the executive order I'm signing today, we will prioritize

  • federal grants from the Department of Justice to police departments

  • that seek independent credentialing, certifying that they meet high

  • standards and in fact, in certain cases, the highest standard.

  • But critics have said Trump's executive order doesn't do enough to fix

  • the issues in police training.

  • It's almost like trying to find a solution how to deal with Covid-19

  • without including medical doctors.

  • You want to find a solution for the problems with policing?

  • Go to social scientists.

  • Just a few of the issues social scientists point to is how few hours

  • are required for police training and what exactly officers are being

  • taught in those few hours.

  • There's also the controversy over training for a so-called warrior

  • mentality, over a guardian mindset.

  • So then, what exactly is police training made up of?

  • And, where does the money come from to support these trainings?

  • Here's how police training is funded across the country.

  • State and local governments spent $115 billion dollars on police in

  • 2017, which is the latest year with comprehensive data available.

  • Most of that money comes from taxpayers.

  • Most of police training occurs in state academies run by the state for

  • different municipalities.

  • State Academy receives funding from the state but it also receives

  • funding from the municipality who's sending people to be trained.

  • It's a financial burden to the state to expand this training because

  • they themselves are in the business of training.

  • Though a majority of the funding for police training starts locally,

  • there's still millions of dollars coming from the federal government.

  • There's a chunk of federal funds made up of grants.

  • Those grants funnel money to state and local police organizations.

  • Here are four of the big ones: COPS, community oriented policing

  • services, Byrne JAG, the Byrne Justice Assistance Grants, Urban

  • Security Initiative and the state Homeland Security Program.

  • Through these programs, at least $54.2 million dollars gets spent on

  • police training alone, and the rest, which is in the billions, is

  • used for equipment and salaries and cars.

  • You get the idea. For example, out of the $590 million dollars

  • allocated for the Urban Area Security Initiative, funding for the

  • fiscal year 2019, $30.7 million dollars went to 64 law enforcement

  • organizations to support training activities for three years.

  • That $31 million dollars in funding is up from 2016 when UASI

  • allocated $18.4 dollars million for police training through its grant

  • program. And the state homeland security program spent approximately

  • 11 million dollars on law enforcement training activities for state,

  • local and territorial governments through 2019.

  • Then, there's the Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant

  • program, which provides states, tribes and local governments with

  • funding to support a range of programs like public defenders, as well

  • as policing. About 252 million of JAG funding was awarded for fiscal

  • year 2019.

  • Those grantees have thus far allocated over 16.5 dollars million of

  • the 252 million available by February 2020.

  • And of that 16.5 million, just over 286,000 went towards training.

  • And through COPS, run out of the Department of Justice, in fiscal

  • year 2019, at least 9.7 dollars million in grants were awarded for

  • the development and delivery of training for law enforcement

  • officers, and over 8.6 million of that went to preparing for active

  • shooter situation trainings.

  • And another 2.6 million dollars in grant reimbursements were filed

  • under the COPS travel training and conferences category.

  • Many of those grants awarded were meant to last years, so not all the

  • training is delivered in the year funding is awarded.

  • Besides government funding and taxpayer money, there's also private

  • donors putting dollars behind training programs, and private

  • companies providing their own kind of training.

  • And at times you can even have private donors or corporations come in

  • and say, we're just going to pay for this.

  • There's no real way of knowing how much money private companies put

  • into these programs.

  • Shrewsbury says it's largely agreed that police need both more and

  • better training. But part of that problem means more money needs to

  • be spent on building that educational infrastructure.

  • And while stats show how inflated police budgets across America have

  • gotten over the last 20 years, most of that money isn't going toward

  • police education.

  • Part of the problem is, is that while we absolutely support reduction

  • of police budgeting, the unfortunate side effect very often or maybe

  • unintended side effect to that is, is that the training divisions

  • often are the ones who start seeing cuts in their budgets.

  • And this is at a point for which we need to increase dollars for

  • training. Some of that can be just reallocation of funding.

  • Since police training is largely decentralized in the United States,

  • the process varies from state to state.

  • Once they've been hired, depending on if the agency itself has its own

  • academy or whether or not they rely on the state academy.

  • The officer will be sent, if they're not certified already, be sent

  • for basic training.

  • It's important to know that there are thirty seven states for which

  • the police are allowed to work before they even attend basic

  • training. One of the biggest issues in police training that experts

  • point out is the minimum standard hours required to become an

  • officer. Excluding field training, basic training programs lasted an

  • average 840 hours.

  • Dramatically less than other professions such as cosmetology, massage

  • therapy, electricians, plumbers, many careers that have far less

  • responsibility and ramifications if something goes wrong.

  • During basic training, officers are taught about a variety of skills.

  • On average, recruits are taught 213 hours of operations, 168 hours of

  • firearms, self-defense and use of force, self-improvement for 89

  • hours and legal education for 86 hours.

  • They also learn about domestic violence for about an average of 13

  • hours and receive an average of 10 hours training and mental health

  • issues. When we look at like officer safety as an example, when

  • officers spend about a third of their training to protect themselves

  • against homicide, they're about as equally likely to die in a traffic

  • crash, which they only get about a little bit over a week of

  • training there. They're nearly three times as likely to kill

  • themselves than ever to be killed by someone else, yet they're

  • receiving maybe a day of training on mental health awareness.

  • We're applying very kind of simple ideas across to how to handle a

  • litany of very complex situations.

  • Another big part of the police training industry is what comes after

  • an officer completes basic training.

  • There is continued education, also known as in-service training.

  • There's in-service training, which is not regulated by anybody.

  • This is also where private companies may step in.

  • And from here, the police training industry kind of falls into murky

  • waters. But oftentimes private companies, many of whom were former

  • law enforcement themselves, started these training units to do

  • specialty type of things, whether it be with shooting, with driving,

  • dealing with alcoholism, substance abuse, mental health.

  • I mean, you name it, there are a series of these private companies.

  • Anybody basically can create a company and offer training to various

  • police departments. Of course, it will differ by state in terms of

  • certain accreditations.

  • I think there are a lot of training programs that law enforcement goes

  • through that hasn't been approved at the state level.

  • There could be some really good reasons for that happening.

  • All of that makes sense.

  • I think part of the problem is when you couple that with at times

  • very little oversight at this level with all the agencies across the

  • country doing different things, it leads to a lot of differences that

  • isn't standardized for from a person who is a police officer in

  • Washington, D.C.

  • compared to Los Angeles, California.

  • Most police practices are not systematically evaluated, and we still

  • know too little about what works under what conditions in policing.

  • One critical issue in police training that Shrewsberry's Institute of

  • Criminal Justice Training Reform points to is junk science, which

  • means that the science behind what's being taught in some training

  • programs or courses doesn't add up to the reality of what actually

  • works. Shrewsbury says, too often, training programs rely on

  • assumptions and traditional approaches that have either been

  • disproven or the validity of which cannot be verified.

  • This is Dave Grossman, he's the founder and director of the Kludgy

  • Research Group, and he's trained thousands of officers across the

  • U.S.. His work has faced a ton of scrutiny in light of police

  • brutality. We are always trying to save lives.

  • We are using deadly force because we sincerely believe it's the only

  • option in the face of imminent threat.

  • The moment that person is no longer a threat, we try to save their

  • life like any other life on the planet.

  • On the one that we got to respond to the same thing in military does

  • overseas. On the other hand, we got to we got to protect lives.

  • And our goal is never to kill.

  • Lieutenant Dave Grossman, who runs the Killology group, calls himself

  • the 'killologist,' does this heavy promotion of act first kind of

  • approach, especially to use of force.

  • I find a lot of his training, if not all of it, very egregious.

  • When we talk about kind of junk science, we have to go back again to

  • look at how much time are officers spending on learning these very,

  • very nuanced topics.

  • Grossman is part of the controversy facing the militarization of U.S.

  • police departments.

  • He's a former Army Ranger and West Point professor and has been

  • training police officers for over 20 years.

  • And, his books on killing and on combat are on the U.S.

  • Marine Commandant's required reading list.

  • And if people have any questions, go to Amazon, look at the reviews,

  • look at what's being said there.

  • Look at the people who say over and over again, this book saved my

  • life. This book changed my world.

  • Look over, and over a thousand reviews On Killing over 800 reviews

  • for On Combat under four and a half stars.

  • Grossman got into the training business after he retired from the army

  • in 1998.

  • And I retired from the army and I was being asked to come and speak to

  • law enforcement because they're always grasping for something that

  • will help, something that will push the envelope a little bit

  • further. Something will keep our cops alive this year.

  • Grossman said he's on the road for his job about 200 days of the year,

  • but he's run into some police departments trying to stay away from

  • warrior training.

  • The mayor of Minneapolis, a while back, said nobody can go to warrior

  • training. I don't call myself warrior training.

  • When the citizen review board actually sees my presentation.

  • They said, this is great stuff. And they said, well, why do you use

  • the word warrior? I said, I don't use that word.

  • That's a word somebody else hung on it.

  • It frustrates people they can't shut me down.

  • And people out there, oh we're going to shut this guy down.

  • You don't have the authority. You don't have that power.

  • You shut down one agency, there's 100 others that want what I got to

  • give and the reality is that if it was stupid stuff, if was bad

  • stuff, we'd be hearing about it.

  • Another such private training company, the Force Science Institute,

  • and its founder, Dr Bill Lewinski, have also faced scrutiny for its

  • brand of officer training.

  • In an email, Lewinski told CNBC that both he and the Force Science

  • Institute do not teach pseudo science.

  • He points to his credentials, saying Force Science has at least two

  • dozen scientific journal articles published and that Force Science's

  • research can pass tests of scientific credibility and stand in court.

  • He also recognizes that there are issues in the training business,

  • saying that's why police training must be science-based.

  • We need to make sure that our training is clinically based and is

  • founded on science, scientific principles for what and how we're

  • teaching, so their skills are useful after.

  • We need to change the number of hours and we also need to change the

  • type of training we do after.

  • Use of force can simply start with the police officer in uniform

  • because a uniform inherently represents the power of the state,

  • according to Maria Haberfeld.

  • But when it comes to the specifics, the formal definition of use of

  • force varies.

  • The use of force training defined by the commission.

  • So it is mandated by the state.

  • She says use of force typically starts as this: An officer issues a

  • voice command like stop or don't move or show me your hands.

  • The vocal commands continue to express urgency until physical use of

  • force, which can then lead to potential use of the less lethal

  • weapons like pepper spray or a baton.

  • Use of force can then escalate to deadly use of force.

  • What law enforcement uses is what's called a de-escalation continuum.

  • It ranges from verbal commands to creating time in space or distance.

  • Can you back out of the situation?

  • Can you