Placeholder Image

Subtitles section Play video

  • Learn All About Blood - Anatomy, Physiology, Composition, Functions & Disorders

  • Blood Disorders

  • Before we study about blood disorders,

  • we must know the composition of blood

  • in a healthy individual.

  • Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals

  • that delivers necessary substances

  • such as nutrients and oxygen

  • to the cells.

  • In vertebrates,

  • it is composed of blood cells

  • suspended in blood plasma.

  • The blood cells are mainly

  • Red Blood Cells

  • also called RBCs or Erythrocytes,

  • White Blood Cells

  • also called WBCs or leukocytes,

  • and Platelets.

  • Plasma which constitutes 55% of blood fluid

  • is mostly water,

  • 92% by volume

  • and contains dissipated proteins,

  • glucose, mineral ions,

  • hormones and carbon dioxide.

  • All the blood cells families

  • work together

  • and maintain your body

  • so that you are healthy and strong.

  • Red blood cells transport oxygen

  • to your body's organs and tissues.

  • White blood cells help your body

  • fight infections.

  • Platelets are tiny molecules

  • that stick up together

  • and build a clot

  • on bleeding wounds.

  • All three cell types

  • formed in the bone marrow,

  • which is the soft tissue

  • inside your bones.

  • Your body needs millions of blood cells

  • produced by bone marrow

  • to carry out vital functions.

  • But sometimes

  • bone marrow cannot work properly

  • due to certain factors

  • and results in blood cell disorders.

  • A blood cell disorder

  • is a condition in which there's a problem

  • with your red blood cells,

  • white blood cells,

  • or the smaller circulating cells

  • called platelets.

  • Blood cell disorders impair the formation

  • and function of one or more

  • of these types of blood cells.

  • Thalassemia is a group

  • of inherited blood disorders.

  • These disorders are caused by genetic mutations

  • that prevent the normal production of hemoglobin.

  • Hemoglobin is the carrier molecule

  • which carries the oxygen

  • obtained during the process of respiration.

  • When red blood cells do not have enough hemoglobin,

  • oxygen doesn't get to all parts of the body.

  • Organs then do not function properly.

  • These disorders can result in:

  • bone deformities,

  • enlarged spleen,

  • heart problems,

  • growth and developmental delays in children.

  • People who suffer from thalassemia

  • need to undergo regular blood transfusions

  • to maintain healthy RBCs

  • and hemoglobin levels in the body.

  • Leukemia

  • Leukemia is blood cancer

  • in which malignant white blood cells multiply

  • inside your body's bone marrow.

  • Usually,

  • leukemia involves the production

  • of abnormal white blood cells,

  • the cells responsible for fighting infection.

  • However,

  • the abnormal cells in leukemia

  • do not function in the same way

  • as normal white blood cells.

  • The leukemia cells

  • continue to grow and divide,

  • eventually crowding out

  • the normal blood cells.

  • The end result

  • is that it becomes difficult for the body

  • to fight infections,

  • control bleeding,

  • and transport oxygen.

  • What causes leukemia?

  • Is leukemia hereditary?

  • The exact cause of leukemia is not known,

  • but it is thought to involve

  • a combination of genetic

  • and environmental factors.

  • Leukemia cells have acquired mutations

  • in their DNA

  • that cause them to grow abnormally

  • and lose functions

  • of typical white blood cells.

  • It is not clear

  • what causes these mutations to occur.

  • One type of change

  • in the cells' DNA

  • that is common in leukemia

  • is known as a chromosome translocation.

  • In this process,

  • a portion of one chromosome breaks off

  • and attaches to a different chromosome.

  • Most cases of leukemia

  • are not believed to be hereditary,

  • but certain genetic mutations and conditions

  • can be passed along to offspring

  • that increase the chances

  • of developing leukemia.

  • Treatments

  • Treatment for your leukemia

  • depends on many factors.

  • Your doctor determines

  • your leukemia treatment

  • based on your age

  • and overall health,

  • the type of leukemia you have,

  • and whether it has spread

  • to other parts of your body,

  • including the central nervous system.

  • Common treatments used to fight leukemia

  • include stem cell transplant,

  • chemotherapy,

  • and radiation therapy.

  • Blood Groups and Blood Transfusion Disorders of Blood

  • What is Blood?

  • There are various definitions

  • which defines blood.

  • In simple words

  • it is a red liquid

  • which circulates in arteries and veins.

  • humans and other vertebrate animals

  • carrying oxygen too

  • and carbon dioxide

  • from the tissues of the body.

  • Other defines blood as vital principle of life.

  • It is the mechanism of blood

  • in bodies of living organism

  • which can differentiate

  • one individual from the other

  • based on the presence or absence

  • of specific antigens in blood.

  • This system is called Blood Group.

  • There are four blood groups:

  • A, B, AB and O blood groups.

  • While blood types are 100% genetically inherited,

  • the environment can potentially determine

  • which blood types in a population

  • will be passed on more frequently

  • to the next generation.

  • Blood Type A:

  • If the red blood cell has only "A" molecules on it.

  • Blood Type B:

  • If the red blood cell has only "B" molecules on it.

  • Blood Type AB:

  • If the red blood cell has a mixture

  • of both "A" & "B" molecules.

  • Blood Type O:

  • If the red blood cell has neither "A" or "B" molecule.

  • Blood Group Facts

  • There are eight different common blood types,

  • which are determined

  • by the presence or absence of certain antigens,

  • which are substances

  • that can trigger an immune response

  • if they are foreign to the human body.

  • Since some antigens

  • can trigger a patient's immune system

  • to attack the transfused blood,

  • safe blood transfusions

  • depend on careful blood typing

  • and cross-matching.

  • Now the next turn is to know

  • about an interesting factor

  • known as Rh-factor,

  • which can be either present (+)

  • or absent (-).

  • In general,

  • Rh-negative blood

  • is given to Rh-negative patients

  • and Rh-positive blood

  • or Rh-negative blood

  • may be given to Rh-positive patients.

  • Are you a universal donor?

  • Or a universal recipient?

  • The universal red cell donor

  • has Type O negative blood type.

  • The universal plasma donor

  • has Type AB positive blood type.

  • Blood Transfusion

  • Blood transfusion is a medical term.

  • It means a procedure used to transfer blood,

  • or some products based on blood,

  • from the circulatory system of one human

  • to that of another human.

  • Blood types are very important

  • when a blood transfusion is necessary.

  • In a blood transfusion,

  • a patient must receive a blood type

  • compatible with his or her own blood type.

  • If the blood types are not compatible,

  • red blood cells will clump together,

  • making clots that can block blood vessels

  • causing a potentially fatal situation.

  • Therefore,

  • it is important that blood types can be matched

  • before blood transfusions take place.

  • In an emergency,

  • type O blood can be given

  • because it is most likely to be accepted

  • by all blood types.

  • However,

  • there is still a risk involved.

  • Why Blood Transfusions Are Performed?

  • Loss of blood during surgery

  • or from an injury or an illness,

  • An inability to make enough blood,

  • Some illnesses and treatments

  • can harm the bone marrow's ability to make blood

  • e.g., chemotherapy decreases production

  • of new blood cells.,

  • To prevent complications

  • from an existing blood or bleeding disorder,

  • such as sickle cell disease,

  • thalassemia,

  • or anaemia caused by kidney disease,

  • haemophilia, or von Willebrand disease.

  • Preparing for a blood donation

  • If your child needs a blood transfusion,

  • the doctor will speak to you

  • about the procedure.

  • If you have questions,

  • be sure to ask.

  • When you feel comfortable with the information

  • and your questions have been fully answered,

  • you will be asked

  • to sign an informed consent form.

  • This form states that you understand

  • the procedure and its risks,

  • and you give permission

  • for your child to have the blood transfusion.

  • If the situation is not a life-threatening emergency,

  • two tests will be done

  • before the transfusion:

  • Blood typing and Cross-matching.

  • Common Myth About Blood Donation

  • "I can't donate because I have low iron"

  • Your red blood cell count

  • doesn't stay low forever.

  • Come in and see if it's improved.

  • Iron-rich food helps promote blood production.

  • Citrus fruit helps your body absorb iron.

  • Dark, leafy-green vegetables

  • are good source of iron.

  • Lean red meat as well as salmon and tuna

  • are good sources of iron.

  • "I can't donate because I am Diabetic."

  • Diabetics may donate blood

  • even if they take medication.