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  • Lithium ion batteries changed our world by delivering us hours of energy in a small lightweight

  • package.

  • But ya know what, my phone battery only lasts a day and THAT'S NOT ENOUGH!

  • I NEED MORE!!!

  • Luckily, scientists are already on it, and have been working for decades on a new battery

  • design that could could last up to 8 times longer, leaving lithium in the dust.

  • Introducing: Fluoride batteries!!

  • Okay, before you yell at me in the comments- NO these aren't ready yet.

  • You're not going to be able to watch this video and then buy a fluoride battery online.

  • Science is slow, everything takes time, BUT this is a huge exciting breakthrough and I

  • have the right to be excited.

  • First, a quick vocab breakdown: Fluoride is the negative ion of the element fluorine,

  • that's also why compounds containing fluorine (like the sodium fluoride in toothpaste) are

  • called fluorides.

  • Fluoride batteries have been of interest since the 1970s when researchers first started experimenting

  • with the material in solid state designs.

  • And though the tests only worked under extremely high temperatures, fluoride held their interest

  • due to its capacity to create a battery with a high energy density- it could store more

  • charge in the same amount of space.

  • A typical lithium-ion battery has 3 parts.

  • An anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte.

  • As the battery discharges, positive lithium ions flow from the anode, across the electrolyte,

  • into the cathode.

  • This leaves free electrons in the anode that create your current.

  • When you charge your lithium battery, the reverse happens- ions in the cathode flow

  • back into the anode.

  • Fluoride batteries work a little differently.

  • Instead of relying on the transfer of positive lithium ions, fluoride batteries use negative

  • fluoride ions to generate their current.

  • The reason these batteries have such a high energy density comes down to the molecular

  • structure of metal fluorides.

  • In a metal fluoride, the ratio of fluorine atoms to metal atoms is high.

  • For example in copper fluoride, two fluorine atoms are combined with just one copper atom.

  • That means for every copper atom, you get two fluoride ions that can move 2 electrons.

  • In a typical lithium battery, however, you only get 1 lithium atom for every two oxygens

  • 1 cobalt.

  • That means for every two oxygen atoms and 1 cobalt atom there's only one lithium ion,

  • that can only move 1 electron.

  • The copper fluoride gives you more ions that can move more electrons-- and does it without

  • increasing overall mass.

  • That means batteries of the same weight can hold more charge, aaaand last up to 8 times

  • longer.

  • On top of improved energy density, replacing lithium with fluoride might also makes these

  • batteries less likely to overheat.

  • Some scientists also say the materials needed to make a fluoride battery could be more environmentally

  • friendly to harvest than the lithium and cobalt we currently use.

  • But all of these great benefits rest on us being able to get fluoride batteries to work,

  • and until this latest breakthrough- we could only really do that with solid electrolytes

  • that functioned upwards of 150 degrees celsius.

  • Now though, scientists NASA, Caltech, and Honda have developed a new flouride-conducting

  • liquid electrolyte that functions at room temperature.

  • They paired it with a copper lanthanum trifluoride cathode and a metal anode, and created a prototype

  • fluoride battery that discharged-- and recharged(!!)- at room temperature.

  • It's a big deal, y'all.

  • Buuut now for the reason why you can't buy them yet.

  • This concept proved room temperature fluoride batteries are possible, but they'll still

  • need to be tinkered with and streamlined to get that super high energy density they promise.

  • There are also some other complications that need to be worked out, like the fact that

  • a complicated coating is required so the electrolyte doesn't literally dissolve the metal electrode.

  • All of that aside, it is a HUGE step towards a functional, scalable fluoride battery.

  • And while it will take time to work out the kinks, this could be the start of a whole

  • new era for energy storage- and I for one am *HERE *FOR*IT*!

  • While we wait for fluoride batteries, why don't you put those lithium ones to good

  • use by building your very own website!

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  • and intuitive website builders.These guys are awesome - they're affordable, reliable,

  • and have all the tools you need to build a new website.

  • And if you want to brand yourself online, Domain dot com has over three hundred domain

  • extensions to fit your needs, from dot pizza to dot space.

  • The guys at Domain dot com love Elements, and to show their love they're giving you

  • 20% off their already affordable prices.

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  • When you think domain names, think Domain dot com.

  • You can't give your friends a fluoride battery, but you can give them a cool science t-shirt!

  • Check out our new Teespring store below the description where you can find this shirt,

  • and other awesome science themed designs.

  • For more on batteries, check out this playlist, and don't forget to subscribe for all the

  • best battery news.

  • Thanks for watching!

Lithium ion batteries changed our world by delivering us hours of energy in a small lightweight

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C1 US fluoride lithium battery domain anode fluorine

This Fluoride Battery Could Mean Phone Batteries That Last a Week

  • 51 1
    joey joey posted on 2021/04/12
Video vocabulary