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• we explained the 2016 Nobel Physics Prize meet tests.

• She relies on technology throughout her day, which simplifies her life.

• She knows that innovations in technology rely on our abilities to understand the materials that create thumb and that physics is one way to uncover these insights.

• So she is curious to learn more about the Nobel Laureates who discovered a new set of regularities in the way matter Behaves Test learns that David Hollis, Duncan Haldane and Michael Costal It's made new discoveries in physics, using concepts found in a branch of mathematics called topology.

• Topology describes properties that air preserved under deformation and manipulations in topology, an integer number called atop a Logical in variant can be assigned to all objects that share the same properties.

• One example of a top.

• A logical in variant is the number of holes.

• An object has an orange, A ball and a muffin.

• All have zero holes, so they can all be assigned the top, a logical in variant and equal zero.

• In contrast, Ah, coffee cup and a bagel each have one hole and can be assigned the top.

• A logical in variant n equals one.

• Objects can't transform from one top ology class to another unless a significant force is applied to them, like cutting blue ing or telling them their top a logical properties air protected against small changes.

• This was noteworthy to scientists because microscopic objects are usually observed as being fragile.

• They typically can Onley survive in very specific conditions.

• But physicists observed some objects that had surprisingly robust properties.

• They were puzzled by these exceptions.

• This year's Nobel Laureates discovered that the robust properties were caused by the top, a logical nature of electrons in those objects.

• From this realization, Solis used topology to explain the famous Quantum Hall effect experiment.

• This experiment showed that in very thin layers and in the presence of high magnetic fields, electrons behave in such a way that the conduct inst through the system is robust against disorder, and can Onley change in steps as the magnetic field is increased.

• Solis was able to explain this behavior by assigning an integer en to each of the conducting steps observed later.

• All Dane predicted that a similar effect was possible without having a magnetic field before scientists believe phase transitions could not occur in extremely thin layers of matter, however, cost her lips, and Solis found that it was possible for vortices to appear in some two D materials because of their top a logical nature.

• They found that each vortex could be assigned an integral number, determined by the number of times it turns at low temperatures.

• The vortices are always seen in tight pairs that stay together.

• These pairs influenced the electric conductivity of the matter, But when the temperature is raised, the vortex pairs break away from each other.

• This is a completely new kind of phase transition.

• Finally, Haldane studied one dimensional change of atomic magnets.

• He found another example of top.

• A logical order, a different type of top, a logical object called a scare.

• Me in explained the change from conducting to insulating behavior of the chain.

• Tess is excited to hear that the ideas developed by the Nobel Laureates have sparked revolutions in many other fields.

we explained the 2016 Nobel Physics Prize meet tests.

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# Topological Phases of Matter - Nobel Prize in Physics 2016

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林宜悉 posted on 2020/12/03
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