B1 Intermediate US 3134 Folder Collection
After playing the video, you can click or select the word to look it up in the dictionary.
Report Subtitle Errors
Clive Wearing was playing the piano alone in his room. When his wife came into the room,
he immediately leapt up and embraced her with joyful enthusiasm.
A minute later, she slipped out to grab a glass of water, and when she returned, he
gave her that same bright greeting, as if she’d been gone for days.
And then he did again.
And again.
Clive was an accomplished London musician, until, in 1985 at the age 47, he contracted
a rare Herpes encephalitis virus that ravaged his central nervous system. Since then he’s
been unable to remember almost any of his past, or to make any new memories.
His wife is the only person he recognizes, but he can never recall the last time he saw
her. This may be the most profound case of extreme and chronic amnesia ever recorded.
Our memory helps make us who we are. Whether recognizing loved ones, recalling past joys,
or just remembering how to, like, walk and talk and fry an egg, memory is the chain that
connects our past to our present.
If it breaks, we’re left untethered, incapable of leaving the present moment, and unable
to embrace the future.
But memory isn’t an all or nothing thing, of course.
Wearing can’t remember any details about his personal past, but he still remembers
how to speak English, get dressed, and play the piano.
Some memories you process automatically, and they are stored differently than your more
personal or factual memories, like, your first kiss, or how to recite pi to twelve places,
or who won the Peloponnesian War.
Speaking of ancient Greeks -- and to help demonstrate what I’m talking about -- I
want you to have a look at our Spartan friend here, and remember his name. ‘Cause we’re
gonna test your memory in just minute.
Technically, memory is learning that has persisted over time -- information that has been stored
and, in many cases, can be recalled.
Except of course during the exam!
Our memories are typically accessed in three different ways — through recall, recognition,
and relearning.
And if you think about all the different kinds of tests you’ve taken in school, they’re
all actually designed to size up how you access stored information in these ways.
Like, recall is how you reach back in your mind and bring up information, just as you
do in fill-in-the-blank tests.
So if i say, BLANK is the capital of Greece, your brain would hopefully recall the answer
as Athens.
Recognition, meanwhile, is more like a multiple-choice test -- you only need identify old information
when presented with it. As in: which of the following was NOT an ancient
city in Greece: Athens, Marathon, Pompeii, or Sparta.
And relearning is sort of like refreshing or reinforcing old information. So when you
study for a final exam, you relearn things you half-forgot more easily than you did when
you were first learning them, like, say, a basic timeline of the Greek empire.
But how? How does all of that data that we’re exposed to, all the time, every day, become
Well, in the late 1960s, American psychologists Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin figured
out enough about the process of memory-formation to break it down into three stages:
First, it’s first encoded into brain, then stored for future use, and then eventually
Sounds simple, but by now you’ve figured out that, just because you take a lot of stuff
about your mind for granted, that doesn’t mean it isn’t complicated.
By Atkinson and Shiffrin’s model, we first record things we want to remember as an immediate,
but fleeting, sensory memory. Think back to the image I showed you a minute
ago. Do you remember his name? If you do it’s because you successfully
managed to shuffle it into your short-term memory, where you probably encoded it through
rehearsal. This is how you briefly remember something
like a password or phone number-- hey Tommy, what’s Jenny’s number? Okay. 867-5309...867-5309…
8-6-7-5-3… see you’re getting it in your head there.
Or in this case, I told you to remember that guy’s name, so maybe you were thinking “Leonidas”
repeatedly over and over, even if you didn’t think you were doing it.
But this information really only stays in your short-term memory for under thirty seconds
without a lot of rehearsal. So if you weren’t repeating “Leonidas,” you’d probably
have forgotten it already.
Because your mind, amazing as it is, can really only hold between four to seven distinct bits
of information at a time--at which point, the memory either decays, or gets transferred
into long-term memory. Long-term memory is like your brain’s durable
and ridiculously spacious storage unit, holding all your knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Now, since the days of Atkinson and Shiffrin, psychologists have recognized that the classical
definition of short-term memory didn’t really capture all of the processes involved in the
transfer of information to your long-term memory.
I mean, it’s more than just being able to remember some Greek guy’s name. So later
generations of psychologists revisited the whole idea of short-term memory and updated
it to the more comprehensive concept of working memory.
Working memory involves all the ways that we take short-term information and stash it
in our long-term stores. And increasingly, we think of it as involving both explicit
and implicit processes. When we store information consciously and
actively, that’s an explicit process. We make the most of this aspect of working memory
when we study, for instance, so that we can know that Athens is the capital of Greece,
and that Pompeii was a Roman town, and not a Greek one.
This is how we capture facts and knowledge that we think we’re going to need -- like
I told you specifically to remember Leonidas’ name, you concentrated on that detail and
filed it away, if briefly. But of course we’re not conscious of Every.
Tiny. Thing that we take in. Yet, our working memory often transfers stuff we’re not aware
of to long-term storage. We call that an implicit process, the kind you don’t have to actively
concentrate on. A good example might be classically conditioned
associations, like, if you get all sweaty and nervous at the dentist because you had
a root canal last year. You don’t need to pull up that file on the
last time you got your face drilled to think oh hey, oral surgery! Not my favorite! Instead,
implicit processes cover all that stuff automatically. This kind of automatic processing is hard
to shut off-- unless you’ve got something unusual going on in your brain, you may not
have much choice but to learn this way, like how you learned how to not put your hand into
a fire. That learning would have happened pretty much automatically as soon as you first
yanked your hand away from an open flame. Whether things are lodged in there explicitly
or implicitly, or both, there are also different kinds of long-term memory. For instance, procedural
memory refers to how we remember to do things -- like riding a bike or reading - it’s
effortful to learn at first, but eventually you can do it without thinking about it.
Long-term memory can also be episodic, tied to specific episodes of your life -- like
“remember that time that Bernice fell out of her chair in chemistry lab and started
laughing uncontrollably?”
Man, good times. There are other types of long-term memory,
too, and we’re continually learning more about the biology and psychology of the whole
complex phenomenon. For instance, while Clive Wearing’s episodic
memories (among others) seem to be deeply affected, his procedural memories for things
seems to be in one piece. This has to do with neuroanatomy that we don’t
have time to explore here, and that we don’t yet fully understand -- Wearing and others
have a lot to teach us about the different types of long-term memory storage.
Now, for healthy memories, there are lots of little tricks you can use to help remember
information. Mnemonics, for one, help with memorization, and I’m sure you know a few
that take the form of acronyms--ROY G. BIV for the colors of the rainbow, for instance.
Mnemonics work in part by organizing items into familiar, manageable units, in a process
called chunking. For example, it may be hard to recall a seven-digit number, but it’ll
be easier to commit it to memory in the rhythm of a phone number: 867-5309. Or you could
just, you know, write a song about it. Strategies like mnemonics and chunking can
help you with explicit processing, but how well you retain your data can depend on how
deep you dig through the different levels of processing.
Shallow processing, for instance, lets you encode information on really basic auditory
or visual levels, based on the sound, structure or appearance of a word.
So if you’re trying to commit the name Leonidas to your explicit memory, using shallow processing
you might encode the word by recalling the cool font you saw it in.
But to really retain that information, you’d want to activate your deep processing, which
encodes semantically, based on actual meaning associated with the word. In this case, you
might remember the story of the mega-tough yet very scantily clad warrior of ancient
Greece. Or you might remember that “leon” means “lion” in Greek, that lions are
tough fighters, and that Leonidas was a tough Spartan warrior-king.
And then to really, really make it stick, you want to connect it to something meaningful
or related to your own personal, emotional experience. Like maybe Gerard Butler’s bronzed
eight-pack torso and unconquerable blood-lust helped lock down the words Spartan and Leonidas
in your forever memory.
I mean, maybe. If … if that helps you. In the end, how much information you encode
and remember depends on both the time you took to learn it and how you made it personally
relevant to YOU. Memory is extremely powerful. It’s constantly
shaping and reshaping your brain, your life, and your identity. Clive Wearing is still
himself on the outside, but in his inability to recall who he was, or process what has
happened, he has lost some critically important part of himself.
Our memories may haunt us or sustain us, but either way, they define us. Without them,
we are left to wander alone in the dark. If you were committing this lesson to memory,
you learned about how we encode and store memory, the difference between implicit automatic
and effortful explicit processing, how shallow and deep processing work, and a few types
of long-term storage. Thanks for watching, especially to our Subbable
subscribers, who make this whole channel possible. If you’d like to sponsor an episode of Crash
Course, get a special Laptop Decal, or even be animated into an upcoming episode, just
go to Subable.com/crashcourse.
This episode was written by Kathleen Yale, edited by Blake de Pastino, and our consultant
is Dr. Ranjit Bhagwat. Our director and editor is Nicholas Jenkins, the script supervisor
is Michael Aranda, who’s also our sound designer, and the graphics team is Thought
    You must  Log in  to get the function.
Tip: Click on the article or the word in the subtitle to get translation quickly!


How We Make Memories - Crash Course Psychology #13

3134 Folder Collection
published on July 3, 2014
More Recommended Videos
  1. 1. Search word

    Select word on the caption to look it up in the dictionary!

  2. 2. Repeat single sentence

    Repeat the same sentence to enhance listening ability

  3. 3. Shortcut


  4. 4. Close caption

    Close the English caption

  5. 5. Embed

    Embed the video to your blog

  6. 6. Unfold

    Hide right panel

  1. Listening Quiz

    Listening Quiz!

  1. Click to open your notebook

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔