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  • Hi, everybody.

  • I'm Esther.

  • In this video, I will introduce the past perfect continuous tense.

  • It's a great tense that helps you express an ongoing action

  • in the past continuing up to another point in the past.

  • There's a lot to learn, so keep watching.

  • One usage of the past perfect continuous tense is to talk about an ongoing action in the

  • past that continued up to another point in the

  • past.

  • You can use 'for' and a duration to talk about

  • how long that action was in progress.

  • Here are some examples.

  • 'I had been waiting for the bus for two hours before it arrived.'

  • You'll notice that at the beginning.

  • It doesn't matter what the subject is, we follow with 'had been'.

  • For example, 'I had been', 'Chuck had been',

  • And 'Tom and Kim had been.'

  • And then we follow with the verb '-ing'.

  • 'waiting'.

  • 'I had been waiting.'

  • Now this is the ongoing action that happened first.

  • Again, four and two hours shows the duration.

  • The second part says, 'it arrived'.

  • This verb is in the past simple tense.

  • Therefore, that is the second action.

  • It's the action that this first action happened until this action happened,

  • so again, 'I had been waiting for the bus,' happened

  • first.

  • And then, it happened until the bus arrived.

  • 'Chuck had been cooking,' Again, that part's easy.

  • No matter what's the subject, we say 'had been' and then verb '-ing'.

  • Again, I can show how long Chuck had been cooking by saying 'for an hour', showing

  • the duration.

  • And then, I finished by saying, 'before he finished'.

  • He had been cooking up to this point in the past.

  • Finally, 'Tom and Kim had been walking,' This part should be familiar to you by now,

  • 'for an hour' Again, that shows duration.

  • 'before they rested.'

  • So they had been walking for an hour before they took a break.

  • Before they rested.

  • Let's move on.

  • The past perfect continuous tense is also used to express cause and effect in the

  • past.

  • The verb that's in the past perfect continuous tense shows the cause,

  • why something happened.

  • We can use 'because' or 'so' to show the cause and effect.

  • Here, I'll explain.

  • 'Jason was tired because he had been jogging.'

  • The first part of the sentence is in the past tense.

  • 'Jason was tired,' However, we see 'why?'

  • Well, because, 'he had been jogging'.

  • The second part of this sentence is in the past perfect continuous tense.

  • 'he had been', remember no matter what the subject,

  • we follow with 'had been' and jogging – 'verb -ing'.

  • 'he had been jogging' This shows why Jason was tired.

  • The next sentence says, 'The pavement' or it 'was wet because

  • it had been raining.'

  • Similar to the first sentence, 'it had been raining' shows the cause.

  • Why was the pavement wet?

  • 'The pavement was wet because it had been raining.'

  • In this sentence, we see a little difference.

  • 'The children had been playing' Again, this is the past perfect continuous

  • tense.

  • 'had been playing' The second part says, 'the room was a mess'.

  • So here, instead of 'because' like the first two sentences,

  • I used 'so'.

  • So the order has been changed but the meaning is the same.

  • This, 'the children had been playing' is why the room was a mess.

  • This is the cause and this is the effect.

  • Let's move on.

  • Now let's go into the negative form of the past perfect continuous tense.

  • Here are some examples.

  • 'I had not been working for a day before I quit.'

  • So no matter what the subject 'I', 'you', 'she', or 'it',

  • just like in the affirmative, we say 'had', but after the 'had', in the negative form,

  • we add 'not'. 'had not'

  • 'had not' or you can use the contraction 'hadn't'.

  • Which is a combination of 'had' and 'not' together.

  • 'I had not been working' The rest of the sentence is the same.

  • 'been + verb -ing' 'I had not been working for a day before

  • I quit.'

  • The next sentence says, 'You had not been cutting onions for long

  • before you cried.'

  • Again, the 'not' goes between 'had' and 'been'.

  • 'She hadn't been studying for long when she fell asleep.'

  • Here, we have the contraction.

  • And finally, 'It hadn't been snowing for long when it

  • stopped.'

  • Again, we have the contraction for 'had not' here.

  • You'll notice that in the first two sentences, I used 'before'.

  • And in the last two, I used 'when'.

  • Either one can be used to show when the first action stopped.

  • Let's move on.

  • Now let's go into how to form basic questions in the past perfect continuous tense.

  • Here is the first example.

  • 'He had been driving all day before he arrived.'

  • Now, to turn this into a question, all we have to do is change the order of the first

  • two words.

  • Instead of 'He had', now I can say, 'Had he', in order to form a question.

  • 'Had he been driving all day before he arrived?'

  • The next sentence says, 'The dog had been barking because it was

  • scared.'

  • In this case, the subject is 'The dog'.

  • And then we follow with 'had'.

  • To turn this into a question, again, we switch the order.

  • 'Had the dog been barking because it was scared?'

  • You'll notice that in the question, the rest of the words stay in the same place.

  • Now, in the first question, we're asking how long an action happened,

  • or how long it was ongoing in the past.

  • And in this question, we ask about cause and effect.

  • Let's move on.

  • Now, I'll introduce how to form WH questions in the past perfect continuous tense.

  • Take a look at these examples.

  • You'll notice that they all start with a WH word.

  • Why, where, what, and who.

  • You might also have noticed that after we have 'had'.

  • 'Why had' 'Where had'

  • 'What had' and 'Who had'

  • In the first question, after that comes the subject.

  • 'Why had you' And then 'been + verb -ing'

  • And that's the same pattern we follow for all of these sentences.

  • So 'Why had you been studying so much?'

  • I can answer by saying, 'I had been studying so much because I have

  • a test.'

  • 'Where had you been traveling before you came here?'

  • I can say, 'I had been traveling through Asia.'

  • 'What had they been playing before they played soccer?'

  • I can answer, 'They had been playing baseball.'

  • And finally, 'Who had she been talking to before she

  • left home?'

  • I can answer, 'She had been talking to her boyfriend.'

  • Let's move on.

  • Let's start a checkup for the past perfect continuous tense.

  • Take a look at the first sentence.

  • It says, 'They __ for a long time before they went home.'

  • Try to fill in the blank with the verb 'work' in this tense.

  • Remember, no matter what the subject, we follow the subject with 'had been'.

  • So we say, 'They had been'.

  • What happens to the verb?

  • Remember, we add '-ing'.

  • So the sentence is, 'They had been working for a long time before they went home.'

  • Now, take a look at the second sentence.

  • I want you to use the negative.

  • 'I __ TV for a year before I started again.'

  • Remember, the negative form for this tense starts with the subject

  • and then 'had not been'.

  • Or I can use the contraction 'hadn't'.

  • 'I hadn't been' And then again, verb '-ing'.

  • 'I hadn't been watching TV for a year before I started again.'

  • Now, try to find the mistake in this next sentence.

  • 'Gina and I hadn't been do any work before we started.'

  • What's the error?

  • You'll notice that the verb does not have an '-ing'.

  • To make the sentence correct, we must say, 'Gina and I hadn't been doing

  • any work before we started.'

  • Now, find the mistake here.

  • 'He had be watching YouTube because he had some free time.'

  • 'He had', that's correct, but we need to change 'be' to been'.

  • And 'watching' is correct.

  • So, 'He had been watching YouTube because he had some free time.'

  • Let's move on.

  • Now, let's move on to another checkup of the past perfect continuous tense.

  • Take a look at the first example.

  • It says, 'The company __ employees because they worked hard.'

  • Use the verb 'promote' in the past perfect continuous tense.

  • Remember, no matter what the subject, we follow with 'had been'.

  • So we say, 'The company had been' and then verb '-ing', so 'promoting'.

  • 'The company had been promoting employees because they worked hard.'

  • The next example says, 'I __ your emails for a while because they went to the spam

  • folder.'

  • Here, try to use the negative form with the verb 'get'.

  • Remember, in the negative form, we say 'had not been getting'

  • Or the contraction 'hadn't been getting'.

  • 'I hadn't been getting your emails for a while because they went to the spam folder.'

  • Now look for the mistake in the next sentence.

  • 'I had been work a lot because I needed the money.'

  • What's the mistake?

  • Remember, we need to add '-ing' to the verb.

  • 'I had been working a lot because I needed the money.'

  • The last sentence says, 'He has been smoking because he was stressed.'

  • Can you find the mistake?

  • Remember, we're practicing the past perfect continuous.

  • In this case, we need 'had' after the subject, not 'has'.

  • Great job, everyone.

  • Let's move on.

  • Good job learning another difficult English grammar tense.

  • The past perfect continuous can be tricky, but with time and practice, you will get better.

  • English is not always easy, but always do your best and never give up.

  • I'll see you in the next video.

Hi, everybody.

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Basic English Grammar Course | Past Perfect Continuous Tense | Learn and Practice

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    Summer posted on 2020/11/19
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