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  • Tell me if this sounds like natural English.  I watched my mom as she dragged the trash can  

  • to the curb. I wanted to help her. I exclaimed  to her "you should have asked me. I would have  

  • helped you." not quite. It's not quite natural  English and that's because I followed all the  

  • rules for ED endings. Wait. If I followed  all the rules, why didn't I sound natural?  

  • Because Americans do all sorts of  crazy things with the T and D sounds.  

  • This is video two in our series on ED endingsregular past tense verbs. If you didn't see video  

  • one, don't worry, you're going to be okay. We're  going to not just learn the pronunciation rules,  

  • but the pronunciation habits of Americans. So  you can sound totally natural speaking in the  

  • past tense in American English. And remember, if  you like this video, or you learned something new,  

  • please give it a thumbs up and subscribe  with notifications. It helps a lot.  

  • This is the second video and we're going to dive  deep into rule two. I'll do a ten second recap  

  • of the rules. Rule one, if the sound at  the end of the infinitive is unvoiced,  

  • ED is pronounced tt-- walked. Rule twoif it's voiced, the ED is pronounced dd--  

  • agreed. Seemed. Rule three, if that last sound is  T or D, the ED ending is --ihd: needed, painted.  

  • Was that ten seconds or was it longer? So rule two. The last sound in the infinitive is  

  • a voiced sound. What is a voiced sound? All vowels  and diphthongs are voiced, and some consonants.  

  • First, we'll talk about vowels and diphthongsFor example, the word agree ends in the ee vowel,  

  • agree, past tense would be agreed, with thesound. Agreed. Now, you probably learned that  

  • D is pronounced dd-- a stop of air, voicing  the vocal chords, ddd--- dd-- dd-- and then a  

  • release. Agreed. But we actually have a couple of  different pronunciations that we'll use for these  

  • rule 2 ED endings. Let's look at the phrase  I agreed it would be a good idea. Agreed it,  

  • agreed it, agreed di di di dih-- agreed it-- That's a flap of the tongue, it's not a stop of  

  • air, it's actually just like the flap T, if you're  familiar with that sound, the D between vowel or  

  • diphthong sounds is a quick single flap of the  tongue against the roof of the mouth. Agreed it,  

  • agreed it, dadadadaa-- agreed it. So anytime with these ED endings  

  • that you have the sounds of a vowel or  diphthong, D, and then a vowel or diphthong,  

  • it's a flap. Agreed it. Lied about. Lied  ah-- lied about, lied about, lied about.  

  • What if the next word doesn't  begin with a vowel or diphthong,  

  • but rather a consonant? Let's take a look at  the example agreed with-- I agreed with you.  

  • I agreed with you. It's not a fully pronounced  D because there's no release. That would be  

  • this: I agreed with you. I agreed with you. Agreed  with. Agreed with. We don't do that. We don't do  

  • that release when the next word begins withconsonant. We make the noise in the vocal cords,  

  • but we don't release it. We go right into  the next sound, in this case, w. Agreed  

  • with, agreed with, agreed--  

  • It's the sound but there's not a stop and releaseWe just carry that voiced D right into the w.  

  • Agreed with. Agreed with. We like to make English  really smooth and that's why in these cases,  

  • stop consonants are not fully pronouncedLet's look at a few more examples where we  

  • have a vowel or diphthong, then the D, and  then the next word begins with a consonant.  

  • He sued the company. Sued the, sued the.  

  • Do you hear that D in the vocal cords? He  sued the company. Plowed through. Plowed.  

  • Plowed through. Weighed my options. Weighed  my, weighed my, weighed my options.  

  • Now let's look at a few more examples, you  tell me how the ED ending should be pronounced:  

  • flapped or unreleased? The next word begins  with a consonant sound so this D is unreleased.  

  • Toyed with. Toyed with. Toyed with. Let's go to Youglish for an example.  

  • Toyed with-- can you say that now really easily  with that unreleased D sound? Toyed with--  

  • toyed with-- what about this oneIs the D flapped or unreleased?  

  • Reviewed a-- reviewed a-- that's usually going to  be a flap because the D comes between two vowel  

  • or diphthong sounds. Reviewed a-- reviewed  a-- let's go to youglish for an example.  

  • One more. What about this one? Booed by-- the next  word begins with a consonant, so that will be an  

  • unreleased D. Booed by-- vibrating the vocal  chords, making the D sound but not releasing.  

  • Booed by-- let's look at an example.

  • So for rule two, we looked at vowel and  

  • diphthongs, plus ed. What about all the consonants  that are voiced? That's still rule two. And things  

  • start to get a little more complicated. We'll  look at each of these voiced consonant endings.  

  • Let's start with R like in the word  fired. He was fired last week. Fired  

  • last, fired last, not dd-- a release, that  would be fired last, fired last, but it's: fired  

  • last, that unreleased D sound in the  vocal cords before the next consonant.  

  • If the next word begins with a vowel or diphthongthe D will be flapped, but only because of the R,  

  • the rule for flapping is a D or T will be flapped  between two sounds that are vowels and diphthongs,  

  • or if the first sound, the sound before is an  R and the sound after is a vowel or diphthong,  

  • like in the word party, or hardy. Those are both  flaps because of the R, DT, vowel or diphthong  

  • pattern. Party. Hardy. So when we have an ending  R infinitive, plus the D sound, plus the word that  

  • begins with the vowel or diphthong, that D will be  flapped. It's not like this for any of these other  

  • voiced consonants. It's just because of the R. He  was fired on monday. Fired on-- rarara-- single  

  • flap of the tongue. Fired on. And I should say for  any of these rule two words, if the next word is  

  • you or your, a native speaker might turn that  D into a J sound. We do this with any word that  

  • ends in a D when the next word begins with you or  your, like in the phrase: would you-- would jjjj--  

  • J sound. Would you. Would you do that for me? Jj-- jj-- so all of these words in rule 2  

  • do end in a D sound therefore, you  might hear this happen. Let's take:  

  • fired you, fired you, as an example, fired you.

  • Fired you, fired you, jj-- with that J sound. How  

  • about g? Another voiced consonant like in the  word beg, begged. She begged all the time. When  

  • the next word begins with a vowel or diphthongyou will release that D into the next word: begged  

  • all the time, dall-- dall-- dall-- begged all--  begged all the time. But when the next sound is  

  • a consonant, it gets more complicated. Honestlythere are three ways you might hear it: first,  

  • dropped. I begged for a dog when I was a little  kid. Begged for, begged for. I dropped it there.  

  • Or you might hear that unreleased D sound in  the vocal cords. I begged for a dog. Begged  

  • for a dog. Begged for a dog. Or you might  even hear a light release. I begged for a dog.  

  • Begged ddd-- light release. I begged for a dogLet me show you what I mean. We'll go to Youglish.  

  • Now in this one, I hear the D in the vocal cordsbut not released. Begged for, begged for.

  • In this next one, I don't really  hear any D. I think it's dropped.  

  • And now an example where  the D is lightly released.  

  • Like I said in my rule one video, try not to  get stressed out about there being more than one  

  • option if it's easier for you to always lightly  release your D, that's okay. As you get more used  

  • to English, and you're around a lot of native  speakers, or if you're doing a lot of imitating,  

  • you may find that you start dropping thesound more naturally. What we're doing here  

  • is looking at all the different possibilities and  pronunciations of what you'll hear when speaking  

  • with American. When a word ends in the J soundlike in change, I just listened to a bunch of  

  • examples of changed. Let's listen to a few.

  • So all those had the released D. Changed. But  

  • it can definitely be dropped too. Let's  look at a common phrase: changed my mind.  

  • Changed my. It's fairly common to drop the  ED ending there. The more common a phrase is,  

  • the more likely we'll do some sort of reduction  there. And that's what I found often happens here.  

  • I changed my mind, becomes: I change my mind. I  listened to a lot of phrases and the D was almost  

  • always dropped. So it just sounds like the  present tense. Change my mind. Even though  

  • it's past tense. Here are some examples.

  • Changed my mind. When I listened in  

  • slow motion, I don't hear any kind of D.

  • Here are a few more with that dropped D.

  • What about a word where the last  sound in the infinitive is the L  

  • like in the word drill? When it's followed by  a word that begins with a vowel or diphthong,  

  • release the D into that word to link it. Drilled  into, drilled into. Let's look at some examples  

  • where the next word begins with a consonant.

  • Drilled to--  

  • the D made in the vocal cords, drilled to--, it's  not released we just go right into the T sound. If  

  • I released it it would be: drilled to, drilled tobut it's drilled to, drilled to. Listen again.

  • Another example.

  • Drilled but,  

  • drilled but. I did hear the D released lightlyDrilled but. This next one was tricky for me.  

  • I had to really slow it down to hear if there is  an unreleased D or not, I think there is.

  • The most common pronunciation I was hearing  in various situations was an unreleased D.  

  • Now we'll cover our three nasal consonants:  M, N, and NG. For M, we'll look at the word  

  • bummed. That means disappointed. We often use  it without. I'm so bummed out. Now in that case,  

  • because the next word begins with the diphthongwe link with the D --dout, --dout, bummed out--  

  • bummed out-- i'm so bummed outLet's listen to an example of  

  • that one.

  • --dout,  

  • --dout, bummed out-- Now we'll hear two examples where  

  • bummed is followed by a consonant. First, it's  dropped, and that's more common, and then you'll  

  • hear it where it's released.

  • Bummed that--  

  • I didn't hear that D at all. That  D was dropped. Here it's released.  

  • Bummed for, bummed for, ddd--  

  • a light release of the D. You know, I haven't  been talking about much when these ED ending  

  • words are at the end of a thought groupThere, it will usually be a light release.  

  • Let's look at an example.

  • Bummed. Light release. That's a fun word,  

  • isn't it? I'm feeling bummed. I'm kind of bummed  out. Or you can use it as a noun. It's a bummer.  

  • Oh, shoot! My favorite restaurant is closed  today. I wanted to eat there. That's a bummer.  

  • N. N is kind of special. N can make a T silentDo you know this rule when T comes after an n,  

  • it's not uncommon to drop that T like in  the word internet or interview. When D  

  • comes after an N and before another consonantit's pretty common to drop like in grand piano so  

  • it's really common to drop the D sound in these  ED endings when the sound in the infinitive,  

  • the final sound, was N and the next word  begins with a consonant. Let's look at several examples.

  • These are all with the word signed.

  • All with a dropped D. Now we'll look at drained.  

  • Also all dropped d's here.

  • and as always, when the next  word begins with the vowel or diphthong,  

  • we'll use the released D to  link in, like in this example:

  • Signed into-- into dadadadada-- with that D sound  linking. At the end of a sentence, we'll probably  

  • release that D. What about NG? Well we don't have  many words here. A lot of those NG ending verbs  

  • are not regular like: ring, rang, sing, sangbut we do have the word long, longed. The noun is  

  • longing and this means to yearn for, to have  a strong desire for. I longed for my mother's  

  • attention. Or I longed for my newborn baby when  I was at work. Or I longed to be taken seriously.  

  • This is often followed by for, which  of course begins with a consonant.  

  • The ED ending can be dropped, but also this is  an emotional word and it will sometimes be more  

  • stressed. I longed for acceptance. And in these  cases, the D will probably be lightly released.  

  • We'll hear two examples. First, where  it's dropped and then when it's not.  

  • Let's move on to the voiced th. This is another  sound that's not very common in ED ending words  

  • we have: smoothed, bathed. These words will most  often be followed by a word that begins with a  

  • vowel like 'smoothed out' or 'smoothed overor 'bathed in'. We'll lightly release the D  

  • into that next sound. But when the next sound  is a consonant, it's much easier to drop the  

  • ED ending to connect. Here are three examples  dropping the ED ending with the word smoothed.  

  • The v sound like in: moved his car, moved  his, moved his, there I dropped the h in his,  

  • that's a common reduction, and so the D linked  into the ih sound because that's a vowel.  

  • Moved his dis dis, I moved his car. At the end  of a sentence, we'll probably release that D.  

  • He moved. He moved. But when the next sound  is a consonant, you'll hear both dropped and  

  • lightly released. Here are two examplesIn the first, the D is released. Moved me.  

  • In the second example, it's dropped.

  • Words were the infinitive ends in z like  

  • buzzed, the rules are the same. Release D into  a vowel or diphthong like in: buzzed about.  

  • 'Buzzed about' means really talked aboutthere's a lot of interest about something.  

  • At the end of a thought group, it  will likely be released like here.

  • And when the next word begins with a consonantyou'll have either dropped or lightly released  

  • ending, here's an example where it's released

  • And where the ED ending is completely dropped.

  • We have one more sound here for rule two, and  it's the ZH sound. It's not at all common to have  

  • a verb that ends with ZH plus ED but we do have  barraged. Barraged means to bombard. Aggressively  

  • throw something at someone. And it might not  mean physically throw, you can barrage someone  

  • with words, or someone can feel barraged with  emails, they just keep getting too many emails,  

  • they can't keep up. This word is usually  followed by with or by, but you might hear  

  • 'barraged us' followed by a vowel so you'll link  with the D. They barraged us with phone calls.  

  • Dus dus dus, barraged us, barraged us. At  the end of a sentence, I'll lightly release  

  • it. I was completely barraged. But followed  by a consonant, it will likely be dropped.

  • Or lightly released.

  • Whew!  

  • That is a lot for rule 2, isn't it? The  pronunciations of the ED ending depend on the  

  • sounds before and after. And the more you study  and watch examples on Youglish or Ted talks, the  

  • more you'll get used to how Americans pronounce  the ED endings, and you'll be able to smooth out  

  • your own speech and sound natural. Now let's have  you train with some of these rule two cases with  

  • a dropped D to make that feel more comfortable  for you. First, you'll hear a phrase then you'll  

  • hear just the two-word link in slow motion twicethree times, repeat the third time, it's important  

  • to not just learn something but to actually train  it, to speak out loud, to get used to it.

  • I did not expect rule 2 to take this long. We're  going to save rule 3 for another video coming  

  • out in a few weeks. While you wait for that  next video, be sure to check out this video.  

  • Also check out my online courses at Rachel's  English academy. You'll become a more confident  

  • English speaker. I make new videos every TuesdayBe sure to come back next week to watch more.  

  • I love being your English teacher. That's it  and thanks so much for using Rachel's English.

Tell me if this sounds like natural English.  I watched my mom as she dragged the trash can  

Subtitles and vocabulary

Operation of videos Adjust the video here to display the subtitles

B1 sound consonant begged agreed ed vowel

ED ENDINGS (2/3) American English Accent Training: PERFECT PRONUNCIATION

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    Summer posted on 2020/11/10
Video vocabulary