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  • Hello. This is 6 Minute English from

  • BBC Learning English. I'm Rob.

  • And I'm Sam.

  • Having your photograph appear on the

  • cover of a magazine makes

  • you famous around the

  • world. But imagine if that photo showed

  • you hugging and playing

  • with wild chimpanzees!

  • That's exactly what happened to

  • Jane Goodall who shot to fame

  • in 1965 when she appeared

  • on the cover of National Geographic

  • magazine. Jane introduced

  • the world to the social and

  • emotional lives of the wild chimpanzees

  • of Gombe, in eastern Tanzania.

  • Jane spent years living among families

  • of wild chimpanzees.

  • Her observations changed

  • the way we view our closest animal

  • relatives - and made us think

  • about what it means to

  • be human.

  • In this programme, we'll be hearing from

  • the iconic environmentalist,

  • Jane Goodall. She

  • reflects on how attitudes have changed

  • as science has

  • uncovered the deep connections

  • between humans and the great apes -

  • large primates including

  • chimpanzees, gorillas and

  • orang-utans, who are closely

  • related to humans.

  • And of course we'll be learning some

  • related vocabulary along the way.

  • As well as Dr Goodall, the National

  • Geographic photographs also

  • made the chimpanzees of Gombe

  • famous. People around the world became

  • interested in the lives

  • of a family of chimps living

  • in a remote corner of Africa.

  • When Gombe's alpha female died in 1972,

  • she was so well-loved that

  • she had an obituary

  • in The Times newspaper. But what was

  • her name? That's our

  • quiz question: which chimpanzee's

  • obituary appeared in The Times?

  • Was it: a) Frodo?, b Flo?, or c) Freud?

  • Well, 1972 is a bit before my time, Rob - I

  • wasn't even born then, but I think it's b)

  • Flo.

  • OK, Sam, we'll find out later

  • if you were right. Now, when

  • Jane first visited Tanzania

  • in the 1960s most scientists believed the

  • only animals capable

  • of making and using tools

  • were humans. But what Jane witnessed

  • about the behaviour

  • of one chimpanzee, who she named

  • Greybeard, turned this idea on its head.

  • Here she recalls that famous

  • day to Jim Al Khalili,

  • for the podcast of BBC Radio 4's

  • Discovery programme, The Life Scientific:

  • I could see this black hand picking grass

  • stems and pushing them

  • down into the termite

  • mound and pulling them out with termites

  • clinging on with their jaws.

  • And the following day,

  • I saw him pick a leafy twig and strip the

  • leaves, so not only was

  • he using objects as

  • tools but modifying those

  • objects to make tools.

  • Jane observed the chimpanzee,

  • Greybeard, finding small wooden

  • branches called twigs and modifying

  • them - changing them slightly

  • in order to improve them.

  • By stripping away the leaves from twigs

  • and using them to collect

  • ants and termites to

  • eat, Greybeard had made a tool - an

  • instruments or simple piece of

  • equipment, for example

  • a knife or hammer, that you hold in your

  • hands and use for a particular job.

  • Previously, it was believed that animals

  • were incapable of making

  • tools on their own. What

  • Jane saw was proof of the intelligence

  • of wild animals.

  • Jane Goodall's studies convinced her that

  • chimps experience the same

  • range of emotions

  • as humans, as she explains here to BBC

  • Radio 4's The Life Scientific:

  • I wasn't surprised that chimps had these

  • emotions. It was fascinating

  • to realise how many of

  • their gestures are like ours ... so you can

  • watch them without knowing

  • anything about

  • them and when they greet with

  • a kiss and embrace, they pat one

  • another in reassurance, they

  • hold hands, they seek physical contact

  • to alleviate nervousness

  • or stress - you know,

  • it's so like us.

  • Holding hands, embracing and kissing

  • were some of the chimpanzee's

  • gestures - movements

  • made with hands, arms or head, to

  • express ideas and feelings.

  • In the same way as humans, the

  • chimpanzees would pat each

  • other - touch someone gently

  • and repeatedly with their hand held flat.

  • Much of their behaviour was human-like.

  • Just as I would hug a friend

  • to reassure them,

  • the chimps used physical contact to

  • alleviate stress - make pain

  • or problems less intense

  • or severe. In fact, chimps are

  • so alike us that sometimes

  • they even get their name in the newspaper!

  • Ah yes, Sam, you mean the quiz question

  • I asked you earlier: which

  • chimpanzee had their

  • obituary published in The Times?

  • And I guessed it was b) Flo.

  • And that's absolutely right. Well done,

  • Sam! Give yourself a pat on the back!

  • OK. In this programme, we've been

  • hearing about legendary

  • zoologist and activist, Jane

  • Goodall, and her experiences living

  • among great apes - primates like

  • chimpanzees who

  • are humans - closest animal relatives.

  • Jane witnessed the chimpanzees of

  • Gombe modify - or slightly alter,

  • objects like leaves and

  • twigs to make tools - hand-held

  • instruments used for a particular job.

  • Many of the chimpanzees gestures - body

  • movements made to communicate

  • and express emotions - like

  • kissing and patting - touching someone

  • gently and repeatedly with

  • a flat hand - were almost

  • human.

  • And just like us, the chimps sought

  • physical contact to

  • alleviate - or reduce the severity

  • of, nervousness and stress.

  • That's all for this programme.

  • Bye for now!

  • Bye bye!

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Do chimps have the same emotions as us? - Listen to 6 Minute English

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    林宜悉 posted on 2020/11/06
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