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  • Hi, everyone.

  • I'm Esther.

  • In this video, I'm going to introduce the present perfect tense.

  • This tense can be used to talk about an action that happened in the past,

  • but when it happened is not very important or it's unknown.

  • It can also be used to talk about an action that started in the past and continues in

  • the present.

  • We really want to emphasize how long that action has been happening.

  • And finally, we use this tense to talk about a recent action.

  • There's a lot to learn and a lot of important information, so keep watching.

  • Let's talk about one usage of the present perfect tense.

  • This tense can be used to talk about an action that happened in the past.

  • But when it happened is not important or not known.

  • However, this action is important to the conversation right now.

  • Let's take a look at some examples.

  • The first one says, 'I have been to Canada.'

  • What we do here is we start with the subject, 'I'.

  • For 'I', 'you', 'we', and 'they', we follow with 'have'.

  • After that we use the past participle of the verb.

  • In this case, the verb is 'be'.

  • And so the past participle is 'been'.

  • 'I have been to Canada.'

  • The next sentence says, 'My cousins have seen the movie.'

  • My cousins is a 'they'.

  • And so again, we follow with 'have'.

  • And the past participle of see is 'seen'.

  • 'They have seen the movie.'

  • Or 'My cousins have seen the movie.'

  • The next example says, 'Chad has gone home.'

  • Chad is a 'he'.

  • For 'he', 'she', 'it', we follow with 'has'.

  • Then, the past participle 'gone' is for the verb 'go'.

  • 'Chad has gone home.'

  • And finally, 'My phone has been fixed.'

  • My phone is an 'it'.

  • Therefore, I use 'has'.

  • And then I need the past participle of 'be' – 'been'.

  • 'My phone has been fixed.'

  • Let's move on to the next usage.

  • The present perfect tense is also used to describe an action that started in the past

  • and continues in the present.

  • 'for' and since' are common expressions used with the present perfect tense.

  • Let's take a look at these examples.

  • 'I have worked there since 2002.'

  • You'll notice we start with the subject.

  • If it's 'I', 'you' or 'we', we have 'have'.

  • Then the past participle of the verb.

  • In this case - 'worked'.

  • What you'll notice here is that we also have 'since 2002'.

  • This shows when the action started, so with the expression 'since', you need to use

  • a specific point in time.

  • The next example does the same thing.

  • 'You have had a car since last year.'

  • Again, we use 'since', so we have a specific point in time - 'last year'.

  • Take a look at the next example.

  • 'Anna has liked him for weeks.'

  • In this case the subject is 'Anna'.

  • Which is a 'she', and so we use 'has'.

  • Then the past participle 'liked'.

  • However, at the end of the sentence, we see 'for weeks'.

  • Not 'since weeks'.

  • When we use 'for', we talk about the duration.

  • We explain how long this action has been true.

  • And finally, 'We have eaten lunch here for 3 months.'

  • Again, the sentence ends with 'for 3 months'.

  • So we show the duration.

  • Let's move on to the next usage.

  • In addition, the present perfect tense can be used to describe an action that recently

  • stopped.

  • Let's take a look at some examples.

  • 'I have just been to the doctor,'

  • So just like for all the other usages, we start with the subject,

  • 'have' or 'has', and the past participle.

  • But you'll notice here, I used the word 'just' between 'have' and the verb.

  • 'I have just been to the doctor.'

  • This shows that it happened very recently.

  • The next example says, 'James has just seen his new baby.'

  • Again, just goes in between 'have' or 'has' and the verb.

  • Take a look at the next example.

  • It says, 'She has already been to China.'

  • 'already' is another word you can use to show that this action recently happened.

  • However, 'already' can also be moved to the end of the sentence.

  • So it's perfectly fine to say, 'She has been to China already.'

  • And in the last example, 'We have recently visited Tom.'

  • Again, you can put this word between 'have' or 'has' and the verb.

  • Or you can also put it at the end of the sentence.

  • 'We have visited Tom recently.'

  • Let's move on.

  • Let's take a look at the negative form of the present perfect tense.

  • Here are some examples.

  • The first one says, 'I have not been to Europe.'

  • What you'll notice in the first sentence is that we simply put a 'not' between 'have'

  • and 'been'.

  • 'I have not been to Europe.'

  • You can also use a contraction and say 'I haven't been to Europe.'

  • The next sentence says, 'It has not rained for 3 months.'

  • Again, we put the 'not' between the 'has' and the verb.

  • 'It has not rained for 3 months.'

  • Here we have a time expression to show the duration.

  • The next example says, 'Teddy hasn't driven for 2 years.'

  • We used the contraction here for 'has' and 'not' – 'hasn't'.

  • And then we use the time expression 'for 2 years' at the end of the sentence.

  • And finally, the last sentence says, 'My sons haven't played soccer since 2010.'

  • We see another contraction here for 'have not' – 'haven't'.

  • 'My sons haven't played soccer since 2010.'

  • This time expression uses 'since'.

  • And so we mention a specific point and time.

  • Let's move on.

  • Now let's take a look at the 'have' or 'has' question form of the present perfect

  • tense.

  • Take a look at the board.

  • The first sentence says, 'Mike has eaten lunch.'

  • That is a statement.

  • Now to turn it into a question, it's quite easy.

  • All you have to do is put 'has' at the beginning.

  • Then you follow with the subject and then the past participle.

  • You'll notice that the placement of the past participle doesn't change.

  • We've simply changed the order of the first 2 words.

  • 'Has Mike eaten lunch?'

  • 'Has Mike eaten lunch?'

  • And you can answer by saying 'Yes, he has.' or 'No, he hasn't.'

  • The next sentence says, 'They have watched the video.'

  • This is a statement.

  • If we want to turn it into a question, again, we change the order of the first two words.

  • 'Have they…?'

  • And the past participle verb stays in the same place.

  • 'Have they watched the video?'

  • 'Have they watched the video?'

  • You can answer this question by saying, 'Yes, they have.'

  • or 'No, they haven't.'

  • Good job, guys.

  • Let's move on.

  • Now, I'll briefly introduce how to ask WH questions in the present perfect tense.

  • Take a look at the board.

  • I have 'where', 'what', 'who', and 'how'.

  • These go at the beginning of the question.

  • Let's take a look at the first example.

  • 'Where has Tim been?'

  • You'll notice we followed the WH word with 'has' or 'have'.

  • In this case, I used 'has' because the subject is 'Tim', and Tim is a 'he'.

  • And then we followed that with the past participle of the verb.

  • 'Where has Tim been?'

  • And I can answer by saying, 'Tim has been home.'

  • or 'Tim has been on vacation.'

  • Something like that.

  • The next question says, what countries have you visited?

  • I can answer by saying, 'I have visited China.'

  • or 'I have visited Mexico.'

  • You can also use the contraction 'I've'.

  • 'I've visited China.'

  • The next question says, 'Who has she talked to?'

  • You can answer by saying, 'She has talked to her mom.' or 'She has talked to her

  • teacher.'

  • The next question says, 'How long have you been married?'

  • 'I've been married for 3 years.'

  • That's one answer that you can give.

  • Great job, everybody.

  • Let's move on.

  • For this checkup, we'll take a look at the present perfect tense.

  • Which describes an action that happened at

  • an unknown or indefinite time in the past.

  • Let's look at the first sentence.

  • 'She _blank_ read that book.'

  • The subject in this sentence is 'she'.

  • For he/she/it, in this tense we say, 'has'.

  • 'She has'.

  • Now, take a look at the verb.

  • It looks like 'read'.

  • But remember we need to use the past participle of the verb.

  • So It's actually 'read'.

  • 'read' and 'read' are spelled the same.

  • 'She has read that book.'