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  • Rachel: In this American English pronunciation video, you're going to visit my cousin Brad's

  • farm.

  • You'll learn reductions like the reduction of the word them and how 'want to' becomes

  • 'wanna'.

  • You'll hear the phrase "a lot of' pronounced 'a lotta'.

  • And you'll hear an example of the reduction of because and you are.

  • Rachel: So Brad, how often do you feed 'em?

  • Brad: Twice a day.

  • Sorry about the wind here, guys.

  • Here was our first reduction.

  • Did you hear it?

  • The reduction of THEM.

  • It's really common to drop the TH in this word and change the vowel to the schwa.

  • When you do this reduction, make sure you link it on to the word before.

  • There should be no break between words.

  • Feed thembecomesfeed 'em”, feed 'em in conversational English.

  • Feed 'em.

  • It's like an unstressed syllable at the end offeed”.

  • Rachel: So Brad, how often do you feed 'em?

  • So Brad, how often do you feed 'em?

  • So Brad, how often do you feed 'em?

  • Brad: Twice a day.

  • Twice a day.

  • Let's look at this short sentence to study stress.

  • Do you notice that some words are longer and some are shorter?

  • They're all one-syllable long, buttwiceanddayare much longer than “a”.

  • They have an up-down intonation: Day, day.

  • “A” is flat and said very quickly.

  • It's unstressed.

  • The other two words are stressed.

  • This contrast between stressed and unstressed is important in American English.

  • If everything was stressed and longer, it would sound more like this: twice a day.

  • Twice a day.

  • That's not normal English.

  • Twice a day.

  • Brad: Twice a day.

  • Twice a day.

  • Twice a day.

  • Have you ever seen a cockfight Brad?

  • Brad: No, I don't want to.

  • Do they have 'em around here?

  • Did you hear anotherthemreduction in that small conversation?

  • Listen again.

  • Do they have 'em around here?

  • Do they have 'em around here?

  • Here the word 'them' refers tocockfights”.

  • It's the plural pronoun and it's pronouncedem”.

  • Linked to the word before, it sounds likehave 'em, have 'em”.

  • Do they have 'em around here?

  • Do they have 'em around here?

  • Do they have 'em around here?

  • Yeah! a lot of guys from Washburn got arrested a couple of years ago for big cockfight ring.

  • Big, big betting?

  • Yeah.

  • Rachel: So you guys had a lot of rain you were saying?

  • Here was another reduction: of.

  • A lotta rain.

  • The phrase “a lot ofis common in American English, and it's common to change the word

  • oftouh”, a lotta.

  • Notice what happens to the T: it changes to a Flap sound because it comes between two

  • vowels.

  • That helps link the two words together.

  • A lotta.

  • Onlylotis stressed here, the two other words are unstressed.

  • Uh uh uhlotta, uhlotta.

  • Try that.

  • A lotta.

  • Rachel: So you guys had a lotta rain you were saying?

  • So you guys had a lotta rain you were saying?

  • So you guys had a lotta rain you were saying?

  • Oh, it's been terrible!

  • Brad: You wanna play with 'em?

  • This wind is making it a little hard to hear, but did you hear what my cousin said?

  • Brad: You wanna play with 'em?

  • You wanna play with 'em?

  • You wanna play with 'em?

  • There's thethemreduction again, referring to the chickens.

  • With 'em, with 'em, with 'em.

  • He also reducedwant totowanna”.

  • This is really common, Americans do it all the time in spoken English.

  • It's not improper English.

  • You wanna play with 'em?

  • Brad: You wanna play with 'em?

  • You wanna play with 'em?

  • You wanna play with 'em?

  • Rachel: No I'd..

  • Brad: Okay, you can grab 'em out of there and play with 'em.

  • Rachel: You can grab 'em out of there.

  • Another them reduction!

  • Grab 'em, grab 'em.

  • Brad: You can grab 'em out, You can grab 'em out, You can grab 'em out of there and play with 'em if you want.

  • Rachel: No, I do not wanna hold one of those.

  • I just used thewannareduction.

  • Did you hear it?

  • I do not wanna hold, I do not wanna hold, I do not wanna hold one of those.

  • Rachel: It's huge!

  • How much does that cow weigh?

  • About 1400 pounds.

  • Rachel: Wow, 1400.

  • Weigh.

  • This is a homophone.

  • That means it sounds exactly the same as another word.

  • Do you know what word is?

  • Weighis pronounced just likeway”. Way.

  • Different word, different meaning, different spelling, but same pronunciation.

  • We have a lot of homophones in American English.

  • Click here to see a video I made about homophones.

  • Rachel: It's huge!

  • How much does that cow weigh?

  • About 1400 pounds.

  • Rachel: Wow, 1400.

  • Yeah,

  • Rachel: Hey Ian.

  • Ian: Hey.

  • (laughing)

  • Rachel: No, that's not how you said it.

  • You said "I sold 3 of 'em."

  • I sold 3 of 'em before we went into winter.

  • Because I knew I was gonna be short on feed.

  • Here, my cousin is talking about his cows, and I made him say it again so I could get

  • it on camera.

  • Do you hear the THEM reduction?

  • I sold 3 of 'em

  • Three of 'em.

  • Three of 'em.

  • Try that.

  • Three of 'em.

  • I sold 3 of 'em.

  • I sold 3 of 'em.

  • I sold 3 of 'em before we went into winter.

  • Because I knew I was gonna be short on feed.

  • Good job.

  • Rachel: I don't think I was meant to be a farmer.

  • You wanna feed 'em Ian?

  • You just heard two reductions that we've already learned in this video.

  • What are they?

  • Rachel: You wanna feed 'em Ian?

  • You wanna feed 'em Ian?

  • Wannaandem”.

  • Do you want to feed them.?

  • You wanna feed 'em?

  • I dropped the word DO, turnedwant tointowanna”, and used thethem

  • reduction.

  • You wanna feed 'em, Ian?

  • Ian is my brother.

  • Rachel: You wanna feed 'em Ian?

  • You wanna feed 'em Ian?

  • You wanna feed 'em Ian?

  • Cows spend lot of time in there.

  • Rachel: Who?

  • The cows do.

  • Rachel: Oh, uhuh.

  • Rachel's Dad: Do you uh, keep 'em in there during the winter?

  • My Dad made thethemreduction too!

  • Did you hear it?

  • Rachel's Dad: Do you uh, keep 'em in there during the winter?

  • keep 'em in there during the winter?

  • keep 'em in there during the winter?

  • Keep 'em in there.

  • Keep 'em, keep 'em, just add that unstressed syllable to the end of the word before.

  • Keep 'em.

  • My dad also dropped the T inwinter”. It became 'winner'.

  • Did you notice that?

  • Rachel's Dad: keep 'em in there during the winter? during the winter? during the winter?

  • keep 'em in there during the winter?

  • Actually, I noticed my cousin Brad did this earlier too.

  • Did you notice?

  • Winter became winner.

  • Brad: Before we went in to winter.

  • Before we went in to winter.

  • Before we went in to winter.

  • Americans sometimes drop the T when it comes after an N. “Wintersounds likewinner”.

  • Other common examples of this: center, interview, international, internet.

  • Rachel's Dad: keep 'em in there during the winter or do they still go out somewhere?

  • Brad: They go outside.

  • They, they're actually outside even when it's snowing.