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  • Hi. Welcome again to I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about inversion. Now, what

  • does "inversion" mean? "Inversion" is when you change the order of something. Right?

  • So we're looking at grammar. Usually, you know in a sentence a subject comes first and

  • then a verb. Today we're going to look at situations where that is reversed. Now, of

  • course, I'm sure that you know that in questions: "Are you sure?" the verb comes before the

  • subject in all questions. That's what makes a question structure a question structure.

  • However, there are other situations where we have this inversion, but we're looking

  • at a sentence; we're not looking at a question.

  • Now, the thing to understand about inversions is that they are very particular. There are

  • only a few expressions that you're going to use inversion with. You can't put them in

  • just about... In just any sentence that you want. The examples that I've written on the

  • board are the ones that you might read or that you might want to write. There are other

  • situations that use this, but unless you're writing poetry or artistic, creative novels

  • - you don't need them and you don't really need to worry about them either. They're very

  • rare. It's very rare you'll see them. It's very, very formal language style. And you'll

  • recognize them, hopefully, when you do see them.

  • So let's start here. When we have "not only". Generally speaking, when we have a sentence

  • that begins with a negative, we're going to have inversion, but especially when you have

  • "not only", you're going to have inversion. Okay?

  • "Not only did he", so there's your verb, there's your subject, there's your verb. Okay? We

  • have the helping verb, the auxiliary verb to start. "Not only did he win", and then

  • we have the "but", "also" to go with "not only". This is like an expression that's fixed;

  • you're always going to be looking at the same thing. "Not only did he win, but he also broke

  • the record." Whatever. "Not only", inversion, "but also".

  • "Under no circumstances", this is another expression that you'll see regularly. And

  • again, we're looking at the negative construction which is why we're looking at the inversion.

  • "Under no circumstances should you call her/call him."

  • Okay? Whatever you do, don't call. "Under no circumstances". "Circumstances", basically

  • situation. "In no situation should you call". "In no situation", same idea. Okay?

  • Another negative: "nor". What is "nor"? Is the negative of "or". Okay? "Or", "nor". Again,

  • many people don't use this word anymore; it's a little bit old-fashioned, a little bit high

  • formality level. But... "The mayor of Toronto refused to resign, nor

  • do we expect him to." Okay? So after "nor", we still have the inversion.

  • Verb, subject, verb. Verb, subject. Okay? I'm not sure if you know the mayor of Toronto,

  • he's very famous now. We're not very proud, but that's a whole other story.

  • Next, so these are the three negatives. These two are also very similar. Again, very formal

  • style, but you might see it, you might want to use it in your essays or whatever.

  • "Should you need any help, don't hesitate to call."

  • What does this mean? "Should you need", if you need. "Should" is just a more formal way

  • to say: "if". "If you need any help, don't hesitate to call.", "Should you need any help,

  • don't hesitate to call." Now, this is a verb, subject, verb. If we use: "if", then there's

  • no issue. Then you have "if" which is a conjunction, adverb, clause, conjunction, subject, verb.

  • "Should" makes it verb, subject, verb.

  • "Had" is the same thing with the "if", but a different structure of the conditional,

  • a different "if" structure. "Had I known you were coming, I would have

  • changed." "If I had known", "If I had known you were

  • coming", "Had I known", it's basically you're making the sentence a little bit shorter,

  • a little more formal. You're starting with a verb, a subject, and another verb. Okay?

  • Past perfect, of course. So these are the conditionals, these are the no's.

  • Now, we have the comparatives, when you're comparing something. When you're comparing

  • an action, so you're using the clause marker: "as", not the preposition: "like". So:

  • "John speaks Chinese, as does Lucy." Okay? "Lucy" is actually the subject, here's

  • the verb, here's a subject. Now, I could put a period and put a new sentence. "So does

  • Lucy." Same idea. "Lucy does as well." If I want the subject, verb order. But when you

  • start with "as", you're going to invert the order. This is a clause marker, adverb clause marker to compare.

  • "More important than love is money." Now, you're thinking: "Well, isn't love the

  • subject?" No, "money" is the subject. "Money is more important than love." But again, style,

  • you want to have it a little bit different... Different structure to impress the reader,

  • to make it a little bit different - you start with the comparative, and then the verb, and

  • then the subject. Okay. Because "than love", this is an object in this situation.

  • Then we have a few expressions. "Here comes Jane."

  • Now, "here" is not a subject; "here" is here. Right? It's an... It's an adverb in this situation.

  • "Jane comes here." Sounds a little strange, doesn't it? That's why we invert everything

  • to make it a little bit more natural. "Here comes Jane." Here comes Jane.

  • Then we have some expressions. Now, it looks like a question but we make it look like a

  • question to give it more emphasis, to give it more strength.

  • "Man, is it cold out!" I'm not asking you: "Is it cold out?" No,

  • I know it's cold out. I'm telling you it's cold out and I'm telling you very strongly.

  • "Is it cold out.", "Man, am I hungry." It means: I am really hungry, but making it very

  • strong; we're making a point of emphasizing which is why we invert the subject and the verb. Okay?

  • And, of course, you have your question. "Are you sure?"

  • "Are you happy?", "Did he come?", "Did you see that?" Whatever the situation is.

  • So there you... You have it: inversion. It's not complicated. You have to just remember

  • the particular structures that use inversion. When you see it, you'll understand what's

  • going on; when you want to use it, here's your list. Pick one, write your sentence,

  • make it work.

  • Of course, go to We have a quiz there that you can practice these a little bit more.

  • And we'll see you again soon.

Hi. Welcome again to I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about inversion. Now, what

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A2 US inversion subject subject verb sentence lucy clause

English Grammar - Inversion: "Had I known...", "Should you need..."

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    ck posted on 2015/03/12
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