B1 Intermediate US 15 Folder Collection
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>> Hey everyone. Happy holidays.
Thank you for coming.
I know some of you are actually on
holiday as of like a few days ago.
So, I appreciate you coming back to show
up to listen to a dear friend of mine,
family friend, Reverend Taka Kawakami,
who, I'll let him explain his background himself.
I'm Anna, I'm one of the General Managers and partners here
running the AI research in Bing Studio,
and we hold a monthly series called Fireside Chats.
This is our third series,
actually it's like 2.5.
It's like we've had two this month already.
I just want to welcome you all and say thank you for showing up,
and I'm going to hand it over to Taka now.
So, thank you.
>> Well, thank you so much. Will you give me a hug?
Well, thank you so much for another introduction,
but also give me this opportunity here.
So, I'm Taka.
Do I need to talk of my background anyway?
>> Yeah.
>> Okay. All right.
So, I am a Deputy Head Priest at Temple Shunkoin Temple.
I am actually wearing T-shirts for that one.
Actually, I'm priest, I'm Zen priest.
Normally when I'm working in Temple,
I wear this robe here.
I teach Zen Buddhism,
Philosophy, but also Mindfulness,
and recently working on the Innovation, something like that.
I work with many startup company in Shinjuku or Gotanda.
That spot in Tokyo,
there are many startup business there.
At first I was wearing a robe
when I started going there to
give a workshop, something like this.
Many people were wearing this logo t-shirts anyway,
so I started wearing this one too.
So, that's what I do.
Then maybe, the last few years,
especially teaching in some of universities in US,
like this February I was leading a workshop at Brown University,
and also MIT, something like that.
Probably some of you are from there too.
So, mostly that's what I do.
Then, today's case, I saw the topics there, the mindfulness too,
but actually many people,
probably already done the meditation mindfulness before.
All right, that's good, thanks.
Many people have done meditations,
probably, because mindfulness I think has faded,
especially this tech industry right now.
But issue there is they don't really
teach about philosophical part.
I think that's an issue,
because if you're practicing meditation just
for the stress reduction or a way to develop your performance,
in a way, in a way you're just using meditation as a pain killer.
In a way, the cosmetic drug.
As you know the pain killer doesn't actually treat wounds,
or disease, or anything, all right.
It doesn't heal your wounds,
disease, anything like that.
So, we need to go a step farther.
Then that's why I start
talking about actuality and reality, in a way.
I should use this one to search topics.
But anyone can tell the difference between actuality and reality.
Anyone up in there and Skype too,
that anyone can tell the difference.
actuality and reality.
I know that if you go to the dictionary, regular dictionary,
Webster, whatever, its synonyms.
But this one here actually quite important for this.
Just practicing mindfulness, well,
actually Zen Buddhism or Buddhism in general,
but also this is an important concept for the innovation too.
Actuality and reality.
Anyone? Don't be shy.
>> Perception.
>> Others say perception versus the moment.
>> That's right.
>> Like, actuality is perception,
and then reality is what's actually happened.
>> Actually it's opposite.
But, yeah, that's close enough in a way.
We have actually a good example later,
but actuality and reality.
Actuality is something actually exist,
but reality only exist here.
So, it's really about perception in a way that
reality based on what you perceive from actuality.
But we normally don't
differentiate because we have a naive realism in a way.
I want to try some game actually.
So, in a way we are going to talk about this one here,
but in order to
actually understand difference between reality and actuality,
we need to understand about our own patterns.
Belief that you created unconsciously,
or some embodied movement or pattern, something like this.
So, we're going to play this game.
Rock-Paper-Scissors, everybody knows.
I assume that you know this is a multinational company.
It's interesting. I teach this one in
my meditation class at my Temple.
I have actually, people coming from different countries.
This simple game here,
but everybody have different rules.
Well, as you see,
these are basic rules here. Lets see.
Don't be shy everybody, find your partner.
Let's make a group of two,
preferably somebody you don't normally talk.
Somebody you don't know. Somebody you've
never talked even you actually- I mean,
this is a huge company in a way.
I can see that many
of the people around here never talk, never seen that.
Okay, you can now find
a partner and maybe kind of partner. So, group of two.
Maybe we find a partner. All right.
So, first of all,
decide if you're going to be Person A and Person B.
Decide if you're going to be Person A and Person B.
Can you decide it? All right.
Then Person A just plays the game as usual, the normal rule,
but Person B you need to throw
the hand second after the Person A throw their hand.
So, you can see what kind of hand your partner throw.
Then you see it, but you have to purposely lose.
You have to lose purposely.
So, you confirm their hand,
then you throw your hand and you lose.
But not too long, okay?
Not too long. I mean,
like just a second later, all right?
Then play this one five times each,
and then I'm going to ask you after everybody play this game,
I'm going to ask you how many times you could lose,
you can lose, okay?
>> Because if you think about [inaudible].
>> Okay. You got the rule?
>> Yeah.
>> Everything clear?
>> Yeah.
>> All right. So.
All right. You have
to loose, you can not win.
Okay? So, five times eight,
all right? Five times eight.
How was it? Tricky, right?
Challenging. All right, everybody finished or not yet?
Do you a couple of minutes?
Couple more minutes, are you done?
>> That was hard.
>> So, first of all,
anyone who loose five times? That's amazing.
Four times? Three times?
Twice? Once? Zero? So, how was it?
>> It's was hard.
>> It's hard isn't it? It's just slight change.
You just need to,
is that my voice echoing or somebody is talking?
Okay. So, anyway, it's
easy game that just on one change, just losing, right.
>> For all of you that are remote,
can you please mute your sites. Thank you.
>> Okay. Thank you. But anyway,
so it's just a really easy game
that it's really hard to lose in a way because,
it's not like you actually practice this one so many time,
in a way, you just need to play this game again and again.
So, you actually know that,
you program yourself to win this game.
But, you try to change approach and it's really hard.
This is a silly game that
many things in your life probably find that it's similar where
you actually learn to
do something and you can still embody the skills or patterns.
You develop certain patterns.
But, when I ask you to change it's really hard.
So, then this one here.
So, this one here,
when you actually make these patterns,
normally we call this one belief, right?
When we create the belief,
first of all, let me ask you this one.
How many people think that you are more rational than people who
lived before late 18th century?
Define that time, we reason why it's
late 18th century normally
defined as the beginning of the modern science.
So, that's why I'm asking you,
how many people think that you are more rational than people
before the late 18th century?
Why do you think you are more rational?
>> They didn't second get themselves with science.
>> Science? I want to talk
about that one today. That's my topic today.
Science, right. Then, what is science?
You need more logic?
>> It's a method for understanding things that are in this.
>> Okay. But, what do you think,
how about people before the modern science was established?
What they used to understand what's going on around them?
>> Observation.
>> Observation.
>> Mythology.
>> Mythology.
>> Traditions.
>> Right.
>> Story.
>> Story.
>> Guess.
>> Guess, that's good.
But, we still use a guess.
But anyway, so this one here for instance,
how we develop our belief that belief it's
not part of faith or religion, I mean,
everyday in life too, you do
certain thing and you have belief that that's happened,
if you do A certainly B happen, that's a belief.
You have a certain routines or things that you do in everyday.
That's also a belief.
But normally, the reason why I ask you this one here
is why do you think you are more
rational than people who lived before.
Then, this case here,
which one comes first?
Reasoning or judgment, which one comes first?
You say rational, right?
You're more rational than people who
lived before the modern science was established.
So, people will say that you are more rational,
which one comes first? Reasoning or judgment?
>> Judgment.
>> Judgment. But in that case,
it's not really irrational, isn't it?
What do you think? If your judgment
comes first and then reasoning second,
doesn't sound rational to me.
>> You question.
>> Then normally sometime people say,
"Oh, reasoning comes first then judgment comes second."
But, what do you see here?
So, intuition, so judgment, right? The reasoning.
But, this reasoning here is not you're being a scientist in a way.
So, you've been just about lawyer to yourself.
You see the difference? Lawyer and the scientist difference.
So, lawyers case, they try to defend the client, right?
Scientists case, they try to find truth.
Then this kind of reasoning here,
this path here you have a judgment intuition this happened.
Reasoning here is normally we try to
justify our intuitional judgment.
Then, if this one here
to justify by your reasoning, then you have belief.
Then repeat. Once this one established,
sorry, this become automatic.
So, you stop thinking.
You stop having critical thinking.
Then you keep repeating this one
because no critical thinking involved.
Critical thinking is so hard,
time-consuming and energy consuming.
Then, you haven't really does automatic patterns here.
So, it's easy.
So, easy for you to repeat.
And as you repeat more,
and this tendency gets stronger.
Right? Think about it now,
first time you ride a bicycle.
It's hard, right? You literally have to
pay attention to how to ride a bicycle.
Right? But as you practice
more and more things get an automatic in a way from some point.
You don't need to really pay attention to riding bicycles anymore.
You actually start chatting with your friend,
or you actually in a way that you check
your smart phone in a way and
when you are riding your bicycle please don't do that.
For example, that become like that.
Then things become automatic.
You embody the skill.
Same thing happened to your judgment or belief in this case.
Belief that basically embodied patterns
where you process the information.
Then, in a way that once you actually believe they establish
you don't really have a critical thinking. Then this guy.
Well, this isn't perfect.
And one way that he actually talk
about gut feeling better than science, correct.
And normally it back he's
an extreme example but normally we do this one too.
You cannot just make fun of him in a way that we
actually follow our gut feeling more than actually reasoning.
In a way that if something against
your belief we just shut it out.
Or we actually kind of cherry picking
the convenient information to
just support your belief. That's happen.
But we don't really critically analyze what's going now normally.
Then, but in order to actually understand what's going,
no we need to actually really understand the viruses too.
And then this is actually part of the kind of related
to somebody mentioned about observation.
For example science, for example if you think of a science.
Science in a way,
today's case objectivism and
having objective point of
view is actually we think of that as a science, right?
But if you actually see the history of science.
What science disk is not just about talking about modern science a
very science from the Ancient Greek time.
Actually this is the observation and experiment.
This a reason tree objectivism became dominant form of science.
But observation, that's still it's actually really important part.
Then actually Buddhism.
We normally say Buddhism is actually science.
We call Buddhism science.
Actually same as the ancient Greek
philosophy observation and experiment.
Which is the actually you're supposed to do
during that mindfulness practice actually.
Well, actually in everyday life too.
Then this part.
So, then starting from there is hard.
So, we should understand what biases do.
Then for instance, biases or this case
here your intuition and
judgment normally based on the information processing.
Adaptive unconscious.
Well, basically means you process tons of information out there.
We are consciousness. Like mostly
they get feedback from your body.
That's why you're alive. Like for instance,
adjusting temperature automatically or
right now you sit in a chair
without really pay attention to
your abs or like a bag must muscle anything.
Actually some cases people get the injury in the brain.
Some brain damage is actually people literally have to pay
attention to their particular mustered to standing up.
So, that's kind of thing happened by most of the cases we actually
processing tons of information out of your consciousness.
Then that's key means in equilibrium medium piece
of information per second.
Then we can only process
about 40 pieces of information per second.
In a conscious mind.
That's happened. That's what you do in a way.
Then this case here,
then sometime this one I hear people say that are there.
So, in this case statistically if we use a larger amount of
information we can actually get more correct result or judgment.
Well and people jump into there.
And this is actually intuition and judgment.
This is a conscious judgment in a way.
Right? Then, that's why people
say it recently and a huge join some corporate wellness program,
mindfulness program, and a little bit
scary to me because people kind of
primordial intuition and judgment.
Follow your gut feeling, something like that.
But actually gut feeling not that great.
Extra accuracy is about between 25 to 35%.
That's your intuitional judgment.
How accurate there. It's nothing, right?
But talking about logic still.
So, 40 pieces of information here.
So, that's mean less than information that's on this one,
but first of all, logics.
When you say you using your logics,
are you're separating yourself from emotion?.
When you make in logical judgment
or when you actually use your logic
to kind of go through the other things.
Are you separating yourself from your own emotion. A nodding.
>> I think so.
>> Okay. You too.
>> [inaudible]
>> Anyone?. Anyone say use can
separate all their emotional formula, logical judgment.
And the sudden say second head.
It's really hard to say we can separate our emotion from, well,
let's say, if you actually conflicted dump via,
if you can, I mean not probably not.
If you could actually
separate yourself from an all-day emotion you
have and you think you can be
super rationale and then you can actually
make clear judgment every time you want.
How many people think that?
If you can't abandon the old emotion
when you want to make it critical thinking.
>> For you assuming we have all the information?
>> All the information you have,
and you have all the logical approaches
of methods or whatever to make a judgment.
>> There will be no push for reasoning.
>> Exactly. No push for the reasoning.
Actually that's happened.
It goes in a way where he just said is
actually even you go through the all the logical process.
The ending part is
actually if you feel good about the logics or not.
So that's a logical thinking.
The end actually basically
if you feel good about this logic or not. That's it.
They're actually interesting products
when people who have brain damage for
this kind of logic emotion and logic part, the connection.
Actually so people can some brand them as if people
would actually go through all the political process.
That when they can connect with
an emotion actually it's akin and make
a judgment because they don't know which is
actually which logic actually feel good or bad.
So, actually they can go through the [inaudible] process
about they can push it themselves like he said.
So, then in this case actually
logic I think is not that great neither.
So, in a way there were not a great extra.
So, that's actually a bottom line away.
And then actually this one too, in a way that.
Have you heard about this one,
or have you seen this one before?
Which is longer? This one,
this part, and this part.
>> It's same.
>> It's same, right? Way it knows its same, right?
But still, which one looks longer?.
That's your intuition and judgment.
You know logically you think this is
actually it's same lengths like as you see here.
You know that you knew it already,
but still this one looks longer than this one.
Because you kind of program that way.
Then actually not like they are only like that.
They know we have so many thing like that in everyday life.
We knew it, but we cannot change it.
Right? But also this one here,
cognitive limitation was suddenly
no scientist think that we can actually process about.
Well, he has excited me.
Hey this good here actually
kind of proposed that idea about early 2000.
We can only press it 126 bits per second.
Then, when newer ones,
this is around 2013,
by university researcher from university with Province.
As they say, no it's even smaller.
Sixty bits per second.
What do you think? Or you work on tech company
so you can see how small this one is.
Right? For example, yeah.
>> He seems to recognize the mergers.
Complex images with large amount of info data,
is instantaneously in a couple of seconds.
So, not quite able to correlate the two.
>> But this one here I was saying that attention.
Our attention is only this much.
Amount of information we can consciously
process is actually only this much per second.
Then we actually using
the limited ability to treat them as an other more complex things.
But what I want to say here.
For example, if you compare this one with your smartphone picture.
Smartphone picture run on 1.2 to three megabyte.
So, well, you know the conversion.
So, if you pick a three megabyte picture
it's about 25,160,000 bits.
Then you have between 60 and 126 bits.
So, literally we looking at
actuality from this tiny pinhole in a way.
Then, probably you've seen this images before too.
So, this one here is a famous Buddhist story,
but this one here is actually Indian folk tale.
There was a character here they're blind.
They never seen an elephant before in their life,
and they're trying to describe how elephant looks like.
Then as a result, this one.
So, one just touching tail it's like a rope.
For the one touching leg,
this guy for him elephant is like a tree trunk.
The one just touching stomach,
whatever body, is the wall,
and the ear is like a fan.
Then tusk is like a spear,
this trunk is like a big snake. That's us.
Our guess actually even worse because we're
not touching the whole tail of elephant,
we just actually probably holding in
a tip of elephant here saying that this is the elephant.
That's us. Then, in a way that
we actually based on that one we started creating our reality.
Then once again, but we
have a intuition and judgment, and the reasoning.
We just cherry picked in information and created belief.
We have this automatic patterns.
Then that's why actually for instance we know mindfulness,
meditation that's actually comes important here.
Because everyday life we don't notice these patterns.
It's really hard to detect.
Then that's why this contemplation part
is really important in everyday in life,
but actually noticing those patterns we have never done in life.
This kind of thing is really subtle to notice.
But for example we need to understand how
you're reacting to the things happening around you.
That's quite important.
Then for example, emotions are easy.
Let's say you can close your eyes a little bit and see,
try to feel- Let's try to actually
think about something that happened last few weeks.
Then, something really annoys you.
Something really annoyed you.
The most annoying thing happened last two weeks.
Just try to revisit that situation,
what are you're feeling first of all?
Most annoying thing to happen to you.
>> [inaudible].
>> Then what are you feeling?
Which part of body are you feeling?
Stomach, chest, anyone?
Actually this way everybody
feeling the emotion on different parts of the body.
So, mainly this case annoyance, anger,
frustration maybe, but everybody I
cannot tell you that everybody feel the anger here or here.
Everybody feeling the emotion on different parts of the body.
But easy to notice that because it's emotion.
That's a strong reaction.
Then how about the most joyful experience
you had the last two weeks?
Most joyful experience you had the last two weeks.
Try to picture that right now.
How do you feel? Where are you feeling?
The same part of body?
No, right? Normally it's different.
But this is really easy to notice because emotion,
strong emotion you can actually have
a stronger reaction so easy to detect that one.
But intuition parts are really hard.
Basically, intuition just may happen every moment right now too.
You would actually having all the judgment right now,
by reaction right now.
But it's really hard to detect.
So, that's why in normal conditions you don't detect them.
So, that's why part like this one you need
to actually learn how to calm down.
For instance, if you want to listen like cricket in
the garden or in a bird in
the tweeting in the branch in your garden something like that,
you want to be quiet.
Also you want to actually have a better focus
or awareness. Kind of same thing.
In order to notice your pattern,
actually first of all,
understanding how you're reacting.
So, you need to understand
that you need to actually detect the subtle reaction.
Then that's why actually, meditation is important.
Then this case here,
I normally teach this was some other communist meditation.
First part there is breathing.
Because breathing have a significant impact
on your autonomic nervous system.
So, normally when you have a slow deep breathing,
you're using more parasympathetic nervous system
than sympathetic nervous system.
Sometimes people think that
one is on, one is off, it's not like that.
Actually both working all the time.
But which one is more active and which one not active?
So, that's a matter of ratio.
Then so try and take
a slow deep breathing right now to see how that works.
So, normally this case here you
can pay attention to your chest and stomach.
See how they expand and contract as you breath in and breath out.
But try to have a slow deep breathing.
But also if you having a hard time here you can
actually use counting number technique.
So, as you breath in and breath out,
you can count the number in your mind slowly,
or you can also pay attention to
your nostril to see how the air passing through there.
This type of simple breathing activity
normally helps you to calming down.
Well because we know breathing
can impact your autonomic nervous system.
Then, so that's why some people would normally say
that meditation is a top-down approach to your emotions.
Normally, emotions are bottom-up phenomenon.
Something happening around you,
like you experience that reaction with your body,
bodily reaction, that's happened first,
then you brain identify your emotions,
then you have emotions.
But meditation normally it's the opposite way because
breathing can have a direct impact
on your autonomic nervous system.
So, having slow deep breathing.
Then also in my case normally add
try to have a longer exhalation than inhalation.
So, you can breath in like you do in everyday in life,
but breath out slowly for a long time.
It's quite simple but actually when you're breathing you're using
more sympathetic nervous system than
parasympathetic nervous system that
means you are getting more alert.
But when you're exhaling, it's a reverse.
So, that's why you're getting calmer.
So, that's why having longer exhalations than
inhalation it helps you to calm down.
Then normally many people finish here.
That's because you actually like I said in the beginning,
you're just using meditation as
a painkiller and people, "Oh, I feel relaxed.
I feel more focused, I'm done. I feel great."
But from here, then first of all what you need to do
is actually pay attention to your bodily sensation once again,
then try to detect
when your attention shift from your breathing to the other.
So, you need to actually detect
that when something capture your attention,
then bring your attention back to your breath.
But in this case, you need to listen to your body.
Because shift of your attention is very subtle,
it's not like emotion.
Emotions are easy to feel like anger,
you just remembering what's happened in
the last week makes you really annoyed or something like that.
You easy to feel.
But shift of attention is really subtle.
But as you practice more,
you can actually notice easily.
Then why's that's helpful?
Because actually sustaining an attention actually
really also helps you to come down because,
what you pay attention to influence your emotions.
So that's why if your attention goes everywhere,
your emotions also like experiencing turbulence.
But if you know how to sustain your attention,
your emotions are relatively stable.
Then, you have a better calmness
and also you can develop better concentration,
but this concentration doesn't mean you
have to focus on one thing.
You are more aware of what's actually going on
with your body, surrounding.
So you can notice there how your body's reacting
to what's going on around you or inside of you.
So, that's actually the inside quote here at start.
But Zen or Jhana this one here,
having deeper concentration, deeper calmness.
So first two part,
in a way that start from a calmness practice.
But, this one can together developing concentration,
know how to sustain attention,
you're getting calmer and
then in a way that's all breathing cells helps you to calm down.
So that's the idea.
Then, you need to actually learn how to observe yourself.
Then this insight part start.
Many people think of a meditation the all calm peaceful things,
but Buddhism in our tradition on this case, for example Buddhism,
with Zen's case actually really start encouraging people
to start meditating on something you don't like,
something you normally avoid.
So for example, Thai Buddhism cases,
they have meditation called white skull meditation.
They actually put the skull in front of you to meditate.
Well, normally we try to avoid a death.
Actually, white skull meditation is new.
Actually, before that people meditated on a corpse,
in front of a corpse.
Well how they decomposing and they end up as a dust.
But that was so traumatic they actually
switched to the white skull partially.
But that's why I actually practice like this, there's actually.
>> That's a Buddhist text, talking about the meditation.
Funny part to here. This translation
is actually The Text Of A Mindfulness.
But many of mindfulness instructor
you see around you, never read that book.
But that book actually talks about, well,
first pay attention to your breathing, like we did,
then pay attention to your bodily sensation,
then after that you
start paying attention, something you don't like.
Start with the mucus or feces, something like this,
but end up with your own death. Then this part, yeah.
>> How do you maintain Samadhi,
when your attention is drawn to other things broken up like
say in the course of a day when you are
forced to pay attention to different things.
How do you maintain a sustaining?
>> Sustaining by actually this part here,
paying attention to yourself.
So you actually, how you're
reacting to things happening around you.
You have to pay attention to so many different things.
Then how you're feeling,
how your body is reacting.
So, something like this, start from there.
So that's actually the key point here.
Then actually I was talking about this and something you normally
avoid is actually first of all you put yourself there.
So this is actually experimental part of meditation.
With this doing the observation part but
now step up and start doing the experiment.
So, you put yourself purposely in
a difficult condition or something you
don't like normally to see how you're reacting.
But your reaction, for example, emotion for example,
emotion doesn't come out from
directly from what's happening around you,
or inside of you directly.
Normally, in-between there's a belief.
So in a way the emotion emerge from
a belief about what's going on around you and inside of you.
So, there's actually filter there, right?
So for example, talking about
this one here something you don't like,
normally or it's something you normally avoid.
See how you're reacting.
Then see that, is the actual danger there,
or actually you just have a fear.
So, pay attention to those.
Fear and danger you can see the difference, right?
Fear, normally you create more and more.
Danger, it's actually there.
The human death is same way.
In a way that it's a death, we're normally scared.
But is actually danger there or fear there?
When we talk about natural death or even like a disease too.
No one normally if it's like is something like this one,
somebody know you normally avoid.
Somebody you cannot really deal with.
Think about them. But where that emotion came up,
where that judgment or belief coming from?
Try to understand that.
Whenever the intuition and judgment like I say,
it's about 25 to 35 percent of accuracy.
Because we cannot process
those 11 million pieces of information at once,
our brains are not that great.
But we actually heavily relying on to this 25 percent,
20 to 35 percent accuracy, accurate judgment in a way.
Then, we start adding all the justification,
then we start hating somebody.
As you see, there also if somebody
say is cozy probably you heard about,
you'll learn about fundamentally attribution errors.
For instance, you categorize people like,
this a good person, bad person.
Then, once you've categorized, you have
a intuition or impression about this a good person,
you tried to keep that image as the way it is.
Whatever this person do,
you say in that situation they have to do it.
Or bad person, on the other hand,
whatever it is they do it.
You say maybe like they want to have attention,
the public stand, whatever.
They want to keep that your judgment as way it is.
But in a way that,
this type of thing in a way
that most important part
that actually disturb a practice in a way,
really understanding about you,
where is this your belief coming from,
and how much you believe dictating
you or preventing you to see the thing as a way it is.
In a way, like I say,
20 to 35 percent of accuracy,
that's your intuition and judgment.
But also you looking at actually different teeny,
tiny pinhole, between 60 to 126 bits per second.
But in even you actually, for instance,
that's in a mirror,
like it lines things in a way they're evil.
You know that that's why it's actually two lines as same lengths,
but you still see that's
one above is longer than the one in the bottom.
What thing you have in your life like that.
Because you have a this initial intuition,
or that's a bad person,
or that say, I don't like that things.
How many thing like this used to actually because
your initial judgment and you keep
having that's belief in everyday life, right.
So that actually the really important part to practice.
So, inside about that,
it won't be comfortable.
Because you're questioning your own reality,
challenging your own reality.
It won't be comfortable.
You're having actually critical approach
toward your belief and value.
Imagine that on the street or even here too,
somebody next to you actually start
to criticizing your belief and value.
How you feel? Not criticizing but
just analyzing your belief and value.
How you feel? You probably feel more not comfortable,
feeling not comfortable, so you've become more
defensive because you're really it isn't such a comfortable place.
But if somebody start attacking your belief,
then you become defensive.
But we encouraging you to do that.
But it's not about Buddhism,
but anyone study Greek philosophy too.
I mean, like a Plato, for example.
He defined his job as
a philosopher is actually about making other people uncomfortable.
Because we are just comfortable with our own ignorance
or one reason why Socrates was
executed because his crime was actually public disturbance.
When he tried to educate more people,
citizens, but he made so many people uncomfortable.
That's why he have to poison himself, right.
But just think about what is your reality,
is reality the accurate replica of actuality.
Probably not. We have a limited to access to actuality,
and we normally have a disbelief of that,
continue in the small,
comfortable reality, in a way.
But it's so comfortable,
that's why we don't want to get outside.
Then, my message here actually
really worries me because in these day,
people talking about mindfulness or
meditation or just a way to find your peace.
Then, you do the meditation, you become happy,
something like that, or finding the satisfaction in your life.
That's why you meditate, that people talk about that one,
in these day, that's really scary part.
Because in a way that this practice actually it's not about,
you become comfortable with your life.
Actually, you need to feel uncomfortable with
your life a little bit.
Because he's just passing the comfort to actually,
first of all, if you want to focus on comfort,
I can tell you the right way.
First of all, forget about diversity,
abundance and diversity, that's extra makes you comfortably good.
As a human being,
you feel more comfortable with people looks like you,
talks like you, and thinks like you.
That's comfortable part, and
also you actually minimize your social connection.
You want to have a small bubble,
with who somebody really similar to you.
Then, occasionally gather with
those people and then telling each other you belong to this group.
You have somewhere to belong,
and then from there,
what are you going to anybody need to do is actually,
yeah, we have a great purpose in our life.
Our group have something great,
therefore, greater good, whatever.
So, that's actually you get,
be comfortable while you get satisfaction in your life.
I just describe a cult groups.
So, if you're looking for a comfort and satisfaction or happiness,
is actually join the cult,
and a second one, pop the Prozac.
After five weeks, actually you have a some memory loss,
but you get actually really feel comfortable.
But do you want to live life like that?
But the point here is actually really understanding
your comfort zone, it's not actuality.
It's not things that they are,
you actually created this comfort zone on your own.
Even like you try to in a way that skew the actuality.
I mean, for instance, simple,
clear answer, that makes you comfortable.
So, that's actually many people
taking science the wrong way because in a way,
science is not really simple clear answer.
That many people think about all science telling
us a really simple clear answer to us.
That's the issue today.
Especially that you feed off a mind
as far as many people say that,
"Oh you know, did a mindfulness practice actually.
Well, because this is supported by Neuroscience."
Many people will say that.
That actually where I actually visit many Neuroscientists.
They said that, "Well, we don't know anything about brain."
Maybe about, I mean this is only
20 years old in a new field of a science.
It's funny when people say, "Oh, you know,
that cortical thickness getting
a thicker when you do the meditation."
Well, that none of us study actually checking
the how much water they drink before
they're measuring there cortical thickness because,
how hydrate do you actually influence a cortical thickness do?
Once lets have again no study you
see about meditation it's now ready, well-designed.
But people normally jump into it because the science
sounds giving us clear simple answer to you.
This year's Nobel Prize winner from Japan he actually say that,
don't trust any of those science magazines.
Like a Nature magazine, those thing normally.
No actually it doesn't mindfulness Instructor programs.
They actually use those Nature magazine or as
those popular article from
popular science magazine as an evidence.
But those magazine normally oversimplified.
Because that's attract more audience.
Whether we feel more comfortable within our clear simple answer.
But if you actually even
comprehend same topics and in those magazine,
actually you read original research paper,
or is it a research paper gives you more confusion,
more ambiguity in a way?
That's actually the actuality in a away.
That ambiguous thing that actually makes us uncomfortable,
that's why we want to keep things more clear.
We want to have a just black and white answer.
But it's things are more grey.
But grey actually in
a way gives you discomfort because it's not clear.
Then also grey thing is actually can sift,
or this is good, this is bad.
But this against our fundamental attribution error
because when I keep a good thing good, the bad thing with bad.
Or often you probably do the research to it.
So, then when you do the research is,
if you are in committees I join such thing occasionally too bad.
It's really hard to actually
decide is it ethically good study or bad study.
Because normally the ethically upon there
in a way it's always changing.
But also we cannot really say,
"Oh, this is bad study."
Is scary wrong, but in a way that so many things in a,
check in every day life.
Half as a may embedded for the work to keep
more people by we using [inaudible] but opposite thing you didn't know,
we embed something peacefully about.
We somehow always good that missing up.
So, it's really hard to say this is a good.
Good thing only create good thing or a bad thing,
this is bad so bad thing only create bad thing.
We don't keep that way, but
actually we need to get out from comfort zone discomfort.
We need to get outside of our comfort zone.
So, that's really important part. Yeah.
>> Where does acceptance fall in to that?
Where is acceptance fall into that?
>> It's really hard to say some of the exception we can find it.
It's you can find but it's
really hard to say what because
if he say something like a fineness [inaudible] you know.
>> Accepting the the uncomfortable and
accepting the comforter like they both existing.
>> What's existing?
>> That you have to at some point in
time accept that they both exist.
>> Both exist. So, that's actually the,
it's a really hardest part.
Normally, we don't want to accept that.
>> Yeah.
>> Both exist. We want to have all zeros something.
There something or game we no worry.
But this type of thing in a way it's really about,
unless try to understand that what's actually looks like.
The pro rates doesn't always give you truth,
always try to find a truth doesn't give you comfort.
You need to feel some comfort to use in everyday in
life as well because it result in your own belief,
you actually kind of not functioning at all.
So, because you don't have any,
you have a zero self confidence.
So, you need to find a balance in
a way but it's really kind of say,
this is a balanced to you. I can't do that.
That's why you need to actually calibrate yourself.
That's really important part.
The observing yourself.
Especially when you feel like you're actually
doing this absolutely right thing check yourself.
Normally, when you feel like you're right just one,
you actually stop having critical thinking.
So, some sort of a standard practice in everyday life.
You need to actually develop the habit to check yourself.
So, that's actually comes into the meditation.
It's not just about doing the meditation,
feel calm, peaceful, done.
We didn't do much of a technique here
because I just told you basic part.
But you can find a tons of technique online.
No, but actually this philosophical parts are quite important
because you need to actually develop
the habits to actually observe yourself.
Self-cultivation really the key.
Then it's really hard to like you say,
"Hey, this is a cone,
this is right, this is wrong."
What is a comfortable does not comfortable.
Then where's the line?
I can only really tells you but constant in
our approach are constant exploration.
That's really important part.
The end we are human.
We can not get closer to the actuality.
We probably keep replacing new reality to yourself.
But in this case actually,
having this humility is really important.
We are just human once again, we're just human.
We can not really achieve the actuality,
but then from there you need to have
a curiosity. So, it's more there.
So, we can actually devote our life to more things out there.
I like Albert Einstein quote.
Once he said, "If we know what we were doing already,
we won't call that for a research."
I think life is like that,
that most of us we can obsessive
be confident and obsessively righteous.
We stopped having critical thinking.
But also we are afraid to
be uncomfortable or we are afraid to be unhappy.
Especially today's current things everything in life.
You have to be happy because if you are not happy,
you are not productive.
If you're not happy, you're not compassionate.
People always talk about happiness.
You have to be happy, you feel the pressure from society,
but we never think about what is happiness. That's the issue too.
We always talk about happiness but we
never defined what is happiness is.
There's a multinational company, multi-ethnic company here.
Probably if you talk to each other,
what is happiness in your culture?
It's completely different.
The scary part today,
and people often say happiness is important.
Look at those in a World Happiness Report.
From the United Nations or happiness rankings.
You see those are country that are happier
than our culture or something like that.
They always compare them one.
But have you checked the who is deciding those ranking?
Especially for instance, one of the happiness report,
only the psychologist and economist.
Actually, group of 15, 20 people there, but they're weird.
Weird actually mean not weird weird,
because there most of them actually white,
educated, industrialized, and rich and democratic.
They're minority. In a way that I'm come from Japan for instance,
if I think about our culture what is good.
It's in a way that suppress yourself for
interests and do for your community.
Because we're heavy on the ethics of community, right?
But, it's opposite in here for example.
This is a more heavy on the ethics of autonomy.
Individual freedom is actually the most prized things.
But, we couldn't compare two cultures saying that,
"Oh, you're suppressing freedom.
So, that's why it's bad culture."
That's why you're not happy.
There is a happiness ranking really scary but there's
no anthropologist, no philosophers.
Then, only one guy from
Bhutan there but it's almost like a only declaration there.
Because he's from Bhutan and they did measure happiness.
So, let's put him here, idea.
It's really scary and it is actually the UAE guide guy.
I can see he's indicating
that's going to get there because of money.
But it's very scary.
That's what's happening right now.
Somebody deciding what is happiness to you right now.
But recheck it.
What is your happiness to you?
Also, those who know,
happiness people talk to you about like
society is really actually
makes you happy or it really good for you or bad for you?
Therefore, you need to think about that.
But, we have a disbelief.
Once you create it,
you just blindly following it.
That's why we need to have a discrete approach.
You need to observe yourself.
Actually, you really need to understand yourself.
But, probably you never understand yourself because in a way
that we have a lot of bias about our self.
So, that's why actually having community like this one is great.
That's why diversity is important.
You need to actually talk to other people.
To find in the Bible verses.
Before you remove the speck from your eyes,
remove the log from your eyes.
Okay. Remove the speck from
other people's eye and then remove the log from your eyes.
We're pretty bad but detecting our biases.
So, that's why having conversation with
people from different background
to find belief that's really important part.
But normally, we become defensive.
But learn about how you normally react,
like I have it here. Not reacting, responding.
So, you normally like it when somebody
said I get something opposite to you.
Normally, you tried to defend your position, but this way.
If ever you meet your wife knows something you don't know,
that's beyond me, science again. Think about that.
Everybody is a human, we're just human.
Once again, have humility.
Everybody just have a limited access.
So, that's why just try to observe yourself.
What can we know,
things you just focusing,
what kind of thing you are just rejecting?
What kind of thing you're accepting?
In these, we just focus on how much information
we can process and how quickly we can process those information,
that we never think about it.
We never think about how we know what we think we know.
Right? We never think about
what kind of information we're rejecting,
what kind of things accepting.
What is the pattern here?
Why are you refuse and why are you accept in it as a fact?
We don't do that. That's why polarization
everywhere or populism everywhere.
So, once again, you can go go back to how you are reacting.
How you're actually making judgment here.
So, that actually most important part of mindfulness people.
But, mindfulness become just a way to support yourself in a way.
That's a really sad part.
Like, "I'm being mindful and that is on you.
I have a more better thinking or something like that."
No. I mean, you need to actually question yourself.
So, that's actually part here.
So, it's not about getting comfortable that.
Innovation comes the same way.
Innovation never come out from comfort.
Innovation comes from something that you
start questioning about basely thing happening around you.
Right? They start from yourself.
So, that's a key. All right. Any questions?
>> Did you see that the responding is not
reacting and the application
of calmness sustaining attention and the insight,
some of us have probably gone through
a series here at Microsoft training.
What we're teaching ourselves to stop basically pause,
look, active listening, and then not responding is responding.
It's like figuring out, checking our emotion,
what plane of your emotion is
and being critical about what your next step is.
What you say, how you act,
is that's a similar approach?
>> This type of thing, first of all,
you need to accept your emotion.
It's not like, active listening but was something like the,
let me see, really about observing what are you experiencing,
that's really the important part.
I mean you're reacting,
that's good and also retrospective way is fine.
You actually have something like a outbursts whatever.
You have a grief,
whatever or joy whatever,
anything happening in life.
You need to actually,
it's not denying or anything but,
first you actually bring back yourself
to that situation or even happening right now.
Really understanding what's happening, your anger.
That's why how you're reacting.
So, it's not really I'm saying that you cannot react.
Actually, as matter of fact we cannot stop reacting.
So, but accepting about your reaction than how you're reacting.
Start observing from your body, start from there.
But also, then from there, why you're reacting.
But, why this part here it's not a justification,
you need to really see the other side.
That's really the hard part.
Then, it's not like I give you
one lecture here right now that you
change your life, it's not like that.
You have to do this one,
it take time to change your belief or your patterns.
So, constant contemplation is very important.
Many people know that scary part
of it in these days like mindfulness,
you can teach that program only three days.
Three days, you get your certified teacher.
We can retreat and they're certified.
You cannot really change your pattern like overnight,
probably takes maybe one year, two year,
three year, four year, five year,
maybe sometimes 10 years, that's happened.
>> Sometimes never.
>> Never. But that's because maybe take a Prozac,
once you're in the cold or something like that.
But, anything like this take a long time.
Today's case if we want to have a really simple quick answer and
also many other program where I
see that in a Google's or in those programs,
they're actually talking really easily about,
do the meditation, do this thing,
that thing, or simply have it of these if I prove that.
Makes things so simple,
but it's not that simple.
Well, you've probably feel lots of discomfort still, you're human.
So, yeah. I mean,
you're human, it's normal to react.
But, how you can change from there take long time.
I'm not teaching magic here.
So, I'm really teaching
about discomfort or dissatisfaction
that's normal part of your life.
But, constantly working on yourself is really important.
It's a lifelong journey in a way.
So, it's not just happening over night once again but,
observing how you reacting.
I'm not saying that not react, it's happened.
But, constantly observing yourself,
and then try to slight changes.
Even like something really makes you uncomfortable,
but that's really in that case.
Any other question? Yeah.
>> You're talking about the cycle with
beliefs feeding into intuition objective being.
There are a lot of people that phrase
things along the lines of self-identification.
How does the way you're looking at
your framework into the concept
of identifying with the belief for help?
Is this another way of saying
the same thing as another angle of it?
>> Well, first of all, like in my field in a way like Buddhism or
other type of philosophy think of that
or occasionally talk with the cutting of the scientists of that,
we can talk about we don't have a self.
The self is actually the coherent story
about how you're reacting
to the things that are around you or inside of you.
>> I guess that's getting to my question.
>> Yeah.
>> Because that's the approach but you're
talking to people in terms of a self,
how do you self administer?
>> But think about,
start questioning about yourself,
or this kind of idea about,
do you have a self type of idea?
That's why realizing, observing a reaction is really important.
Then you think about those,
there's a coherent reaction there.
So that's why you start believing you are there, kind of idea.
But as you observe more and more,
and then also you can do the experiment part,
or put yourself in some
uncomfortable, comfortable situation, whatever.
Start seeing a pattern there.
Then the issues, change the pattern of what's happened to me.
Why is something completely changed?
So, what is self?
Start questioning more about it.
So, only thing I can say is yes,
start observing yourself and let's see how you react.
Also, this is not really Buddhist approach,
but this is a Confucianism approach.
Confucianist approach is actually a ritual.
By ritual, it doesn't mean like a religious or
some big ceremony or anything.
Like it's something like you know,
somebody you don't like,
you don't say hi or anything,
but you start saying hi to this person.
Being polite, that's a ritual.
Saying hi, to start saying to
this person in ritual, a small ritual.
But how that change the interaction with this person?
How that's actually start changing the impression of this person?
So, something like the small things in everyday life,
start switching little by little.
Then in that case in a way
that you realize it yourself as a constantly sifting.
Then, so, what you thought about yourself is
not like a prominent and changeable things.
So, I think that's
the only way to combine those two things together.
Any other questions?
Is it getting confusing in a way?
But that's actually normal. Yeah.
>> I'm still thinking about the,
if you're in a meeting or something,
and you hear something that you,
your instinct is to respond,
and you take a moment and think about it.
If it's not quite right to think about it,
detaching yourself from your emotions,
but really embracing what you're emotionally feeling.
That rings true to me.
But I'm wondering, beyond that,
is it helpful to identify that emotion to the others in the room?
Like, this is what I'm experiencing here,
like this is why I'm feeling the way I am about this.
What do you suggest on outside of yourself,
explaining what is happening in
this conflict to those in the room.
>> Well, first of all like you know,
logic vs. logic never works, right?
I think it is Dan Carnegie,
he is a moral psychologists for he,
but wrote a bunch of work actually book about persuasion.
First of all, really understanding about
how they feel to each other.
If you're angry, if you're angry.
That's actually understanding the anger to each other.
That's a really important part.
Then also, then, if somebody angry,
so try to understand why this person feeling angers,
and then you try to be the same place in a way.
Even like in a logical you don't understand it, but first of all,
people want to other people to understand how you feel.
I think that's a better conflict resolution in a way.
But normally, we try to top the other people's logics.
For me, this part here,
we don't have time much, so,
but Dan Carnegie the book,
or also even like Daniel Kahneman.
Dan Kahneman, he's a cognitive psychologist.
But he also talk about similar things in a way.
In a way that it's really about being human.
Yeah, it's intuition and judgment.
Intuition and judgement basically,
it's really emotional reaction like subtler emotional reaction.
So then, how we have a best conversation
to the people is actually really,
it's really about how other people feeling.
>> You can check under the say,
I notice that you're being triggered.
>> Not like that.
>> I notice you're being triggered.
>> But if you would say that in
front of people, people get annoyed.
If you actually mentioned that you're annoyed,
that would get people get more annoyed. Yeah.
>> [inaudible] I'm sorry if I [inaudible]
>> But really about,
try to listen to people first.
If you want to kind of you know easing that frustration,
let's listen this person first.
I know that you want to say something,
but just listen to them first before you
start topping what people say with your opinion.
Just listen to them.
Normally when they say
they notice that all of this everybody listening to me,
then people normally calm down little bit.
>> But emotions are real, yeah?
>> Yeah. Emotions are real.
>> I think we often hear like detach yourself from your emotions.
What I am getting from here is that,
one, it's impossible, and two, it's not helpful.
>> Not helpful actually.
Nurturing all their emotions is a really important part.
Really understanding how you're feeling, that's when you know.
First of all, you cannot really detach yourself from your emotion.
That a reality in a way.
So that's why really about here is
how are other people feeling this.
Then, next, let somebody know.
[inaudible] everything from their chest.
So, I think that that's actually the only solution.
After that, then you can say
oh you totally understand your point of view,
or something like that.
But let's try this idea too or something like this.
I think that's the best way.
I know that it is difficult to
just listening to things that you don't like,
but sometimes actually, there's actually fruits there.
Can, connected using innovation because everybody have,
like I say, everybody knows something you don't know.
Then, everybody using this between
60 and 126 bits King Hall to see the actuality.
So, not like a wine is better than the other.
Just you know, we're looking at things from different angles.
Yeah. So, once again, humility.
But, this is not only a unique to Buddhism like Judaism, Islam.
Say, you have their Allahs are beyond the human imagination.
That's why Islam devotion is important.
Then, I had a dialog with this scholar from Egypt.
But those religious extremists normally say,
this is Allah's will.
We will go beyond.
It doesn't matter a Muslim,
or Christianity, or Judaism.
Normally people say, I understand God's will,
so that's why I'm doing it.
No. We cannot understand them.
That's why we devote ourselves to the practice.
So, then science is kind of the same way.
Science is not really talking about a fact,
it's a hypothesis and probability.
Science is actually provisional.
I mean, many the therapy,
whatever channel raising stuff.
For example, like, you cannot believe it.
I mean, like, 40s and 50s.
Think about, we shouldn't pick up kids crying.
That's a most recommended,
and most accepted method.
Because if you pick up the kids as they've created attachment,
and it is bad for them and they'll become week.
It's a horrible. But that isn't so common back then,
but it is so scientifically approved the idea back then.
Most people actually did believe that.
Today's kind of same way.
We have though, many people,
this is scientifically approved.
We should do this. This the best way.
We should do this, do that.
But, well, once you know,
doubting, always questioning about what people say about Science.
So, I think that's kind of thing.
Well, but it's really
hard to change the people's mind and what's logic.
So, listening first.
Yeah. Any other questions? It's all right.
>> Thank you so much.
>> Thank you so much.
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Mindfulness with Kawakami-san

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Takaaki Inoue published on May 23, 2020
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