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  • (upbeat music)

  • - Hello everyone and welcome back to English with Lucy.

  • Today I am going to talk to you about

  • five strict English grammar rules

  • that natives don't always follow.

  • Yes, that's right.

  • Your teacher may have been lying to you.

  • Quickly before we get started, I would just like to thank

  • the sponsor of today's video it is italki.

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  • Right, let's get started with the lesson.

  • All right, let's start with the first rule of English.

  • There are no rules.

  • (laughs)

  • That's just a joke.

  • There are many rules,

  • but we don't follow all of them

  • and that is what this video is about.

  • I just thought that was a lovely example

  • of how confusing language is.

  • Let's be serious.

  • Now, the first rule that we like to break

  • and the rule that doesn't always apply,

  • many teachers will tell you that you should never

  • ever end a sentence with a preposition.

  • Well, I'm about to prove your teacher's wrong.

  • There are quite a few situations in which you can end

  • a sentence with a preposition.

  • Now, if you can remove the preposition

  • from the end of a sentence without it changing the meaning

  • of the sentence, then you should do that.

  • But what about situations in which the meaning has changed?

  • Oh, let's talk about phrasal verbs.

  • These other verbs made of a verb

  • and at least one preposition.

  • Keep up, run down, get up,

  • put on, often sentences that use phrasal verbs,

  • end with a preposition.

  • For example, I think you should get up.

  • Or I hope you can come over.

  • Both of these sentences end with a preposition

  • and it can't be avoided.

  • If we remove the preposition,

  • the meaning will change and we can't really

  • rearrange it to avoid the preposition being put at the end.

  • Sometimes it's even okay to end a sentence

  • with a preposition

  • even if you aren't using a phrasal verb,

  • you might be able to rewrite these sentences

  • to avoid them ending with a preposition,

  • but it's not always necessary.

  • You might be over complicating things.

  • An example, does anyone know where he came from?

  • I could rewrite the sentence to say,

  • does anyone know from where he came?

  • But it would sound so unbelievably old fashioned.

  • Does anyone know where he came from?

  • Is perfectly fine.

  • Right, rule number two, the rule I want to debunk,

  • (chackles)

  • you should always say someone and I,

  • not someone and me.

  • This one is close to my heart

  • because I had it drummed into me when I was at school

  • both by my teachers and my mother,

  • and my teachers and my mother were misinformed at school.

  • Let's take a look at four sentences all regarding the zoo.

  • Lucy and I went to the zoo with Tom.

  • Lucy and me went to the zoo with Tom.

  • Tom went to the zoo with Lucy and I.

  • And Tom went to the zoo with Lucy and me.

  • Two of these sentences are incorrect

  • and two of them are correct.

  • The question of whether to use I or me,

  • it comes down to whether you're using the word as a subject

  • or an object in the sentence.

  • Both words are pronouns,

  • but I as a subject pronoun

  • and me is an object pronoun.

  • Native speakers, you can be forgiven

  • for getting confused with this.

  • I never learned this at school,

  • so after the first two,

  • Lucy and I went to the zoo with Tom,

  • it would be correct

  • because I is the subject of the sentence.

  • You can work this out by removing the extra bit,

  • the Lucy and bit does it work on its own?

  • I went to the zoo with Tom,

  • or me went to the zoo with Tom.

  • Well, me went, sounds very, very wrong.

  • So it's, I went.

  • However, in the second two sentences

  • it is the opposite.

  • Remove Lucy and again, in the second two sentences,

  • Tom went to the zoo with I, sounds weird.

  • So it's Tom went to the zoo with me.

  • Tom went to the zoo with Lucy and me.

  • In this case me is the object of the sentence.

  • So many native speakers

  • will always be taught to say someone and I,

  • when actually in many cases, someone

  • and me is the correct version.

  • Number three, a big rule that came up recently after

  • I used one of these in a title of my videos,

  • it is that you should never split an infinitive.

  • Many teachers will tell you this

  • because they are simplifying things a little bit,

  • but in reality we do split infinitives.

  • So infinitives are the two word forms of verbs like to run,

  • to laugh, to play.

  • When you split an infinitive,

  • you put something normally an adverb

  • between those two words,

  • for example, to quickly run, to carefully read,

  • to playfully dance.

  • So often it's a case of it just sounding better

  • when we split an infinitive,

  • it sounds more natural.

  • For example, I'm going to quickly run to the shop.

  • This sounds better than

  • I'm going to run to the shop quickly.

  • But in some more complex cases,

  • moving the adverb can actually change the meaning

  • of the sentence.

  • Take a look at this sentence.

  • I'm going to really kiss him when I see him.

  • If I say I'm going to really kiss someone,

  • it means that it's going to be quite a kiss, a big kiss,

  • a very strong one.

  • If I say, I am really going to kiss him when I see him,

  • rather than talking about the strength of the kiss,

  • I'm almost conveying a sense of determination.

  • It's only a slight difference,

  • but it does change the meaning.

  • Now, some sentences actually require a split infinitive,

  • which makes it all the more bananas

  • that teachers tell you to never split an infinitive.

  • Let's go straight in with an example.

  • He expects the staff numbers to more than triple

  • over the next five years.

  • You can't move more than in this sentence.

  • You can't put it in another place

  • whilst retaining the meaning.

  • This sentence requires a split infinitive.

  • Number four is,

  • we should always use there are instead of there is

  • before a plural.

  • So many teachers will tell you always use

  • there is then a singular and there are then a plural,

  • this doesn't always apply.

  • People get very upset about it.

  • In the comment section, if I use there is

  • before what they consider to be a plural,

  • I'm going to explain that use