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  • >> Okay, thanks.

  • Can everybody hear me?

  • I thought I'd start off with just a couple of straw polls.

  • Who here has never been to an Ikea store?

  • It's a very small number, probably about 5%.

  • Who here enjoys shopping at Ikea?

  • Now, that's interesting.

  • We're getting about 25% of the audience there.

  • Well, I hope to sort of end up with a bit of enlightenment

  • about the nature of Ikea, because there are a lot

  • of people who go there who don't enjoy it

  • but still seem to keep going.

  • But what I thought I'd do is start off with a bit of science.

  • Now, shopping and the way we shop is something that's been

  • going on for a long time, and broadly I think,

  • people find it an enjoyable experience.

  • I'm going to go into some of the reasons why this is the case

  • and how it takes place as we go through.

  • Shopping forms the hearts of our cities,

  • and I think that the retail experience,

  • the shopping experience, even if it's just window shopping,

  • informs the way we think about and look at our cities

  • as we move around them.

  • [ Background noise ]

  • >> What a shop is is an interface to the street.

  • And so to make sure the threshold from looking

  • from the inside to the outside and looking

  • from the outside inwards, are 2 quite different experiences.

  • And I'm going to be talking about the nature

  • of that threshold, as you step over from the urban realm

  • into the shopping interior, what takes place.

  • What I'll eventually say is that as you step over the threshold,

  • you exchange a contract with the shop owner, so the relationship

  • between the shopper and the shop owner is one

  • about contract exchange.

  • Let me give you a very simple representation of a little bit

  • of a city, and let's do a trick to it.

  • Let's take each line -- maybe those are streets --

  • and represent them as a dot, and then connect them

  • to the lines that cross them.

  • So that's the streets that meet that intersect, and then those

  • in turn and finally that one there.

  • We've now represented a street pattern

  • as what a mathematician calls a graph.

  • Now, a second trick.

  • Let's look at it from this point of view, and let's lay it

  • out in terms of going from street to street to street

  • as you turn corners as you move through urban space.

  • It looks like that.

  • Let's look at it from a different point of view.

  • It looks like that.

  • Intriguing thing is that the same pattern

  • of space is objectively different from different points

  • of view, so from the blue dot on the left,

  • the rest of the world is distanced from you;

  • you're relatively isolated.

  • And from the right-hand dot, the rest of the world is close

  • to you; you're relatively accessible or integrated.

  • So we can color up a map, according to the deck,

  • if you like, of everywhere else from here,

  • and you go through the spectrum from blue bits that are isolated

  • through to red bits that are relatively accessible.

  • Now, there are three rules for retailing

  • that any retailer will tell you,

  • the location, location, location.

  • And what I'm going to suggest is that the sort of map

  • of accessibility is the thing that gives rise to this property

  • of location that the retailer finds so important.

  • Let's look at London, and this is coloring

  • up on exactly the same method, but with all of these lines,

  • all the streets that you have within the north

  • and south circular roads in this case.

  • I should make it a bit darker in here so you can see this.

  • Is that more visible?

  • Intriguingly, the red line

  • in the center there is Oxford Street.

  • It turns out to be the shallowest

  • and most accessible street in the whole of that map of London,

  • but you can say similar things about the King's Road,

  • or maybe the Holloway Road.

  • You can spot them.

  • Now, this is purely an analysis of how the street system

  • of London connects together.

  • Let's zoom in.

  • That's Camden Town.

  • You can see Regent's Park is marked off,

  • with all its pedestrian routes through it.

  • And there are the locations

  • of each retail outlet in that little area.

  • Two kinds.

  • There are the areas where they aggregate together

  • into big clusters along the main streets,

  • along Camden High Street and so forth,

  • and then there are the disbursed convenience corner shops off

  • in the back streets.

  • You can do a similar thing, looking again

  • at the Oxford Street area.

  • Here's the map of Oxford Street and Regent's Streets,

  • and then that's the map of Land Use where red

  • in this case is the retailer, and you can see

  • that these clusterings are part of what we understand

  • about cities as we move around them.

  • You turn the corner, you're into a major shopping street,

  • you turn off the street into a line

  • that is slightly more isolated, the number of shops will drop,

  • you turn a corner again and you can be

  • in a completely quiet area devoid of any kind

  • of retail activity at all.

  • Now, there are some other facts.

  • If we go out and we count the way that people move

  • around in this sort of space, what you find is

  • that the more integrated and accessible a space,

  • the higher the flows of people moving through it,

  • whether those are pedestrians or whether they're vehicles,

  • the lower and more inaccessible, the fewer people move through.

  • So you've got a bit of a thesis here.

  • The structure of space

  • in the city attracts pedestrian movement,

  • and the reason why location is so important

  • to the retailer is they need passing trade;

  • they need people walking past the door.

  • So what do you do?

  • Well, shops follow people.

  • The way the shops are located in the city is an attractor effect

  • in that the retailers are attracted by the pedestrians

  • who are there because of the way the structure

  • of space links together.

  • People are then attracted by the shops,

  • until you've got a multiplier,

  • and that is why this is an emergent phenomenon,

  • that something which is quite difficult to plan

  • for until you understand the principles,

  • but once you understand the principles you can then guide

  • them if you like.

  • But if you take a really isolated location and put a shop

  • in it, essentially that shop has to do a lot of marketing,

  • handing out very good quality value goods in order

  • to overcome the separation of space.

  • Now, this is something which has always been the case and happens

  • in all parts of the world under different cultures.

  • And here are some work done by a Ph.D. student

  • of mine Nazarene Hussein (phonetic), several years,

  • where she looked at the growth of the city of Dhaka

  • and Bangladesh and in particular looked at retail.

  • So in 1952, this is a map, an analysis of the city of Dhaka,

  • and the sort of black dots along some of the streets,

  • those are the retail shopping areas of the old city of Dhaka.

  • As the city grew in 1962, the pattern --

  • the city has grown enormously, as you can see --

  • but then the pattern of shops has taken up new areas

  • and expanded, and then going on again 10 years later, 1975,

  • it's grown further, and by the time you get to 1995,

  • you've got a very interesting and coherent pattern by which

  • as the city expands, new spaces become accessible

  • in the larger city, and those

  • in turn then attract the retail functions and those

  • in turn attract more shoppers and so forth.

  • What kind of retail is this?

  • Well, in a city like Bangladesh, or like Dhaka and Bangladesh,

  • it is relatively unregulated.

  • Even if there is regulation, people tend to get

  • around it in various ways.

  • And so you've got a relatively perfect market taking place

  • without regulation, an interesting thing.

  • And that makes it particularly interesting for those who want

  • to study how shopping takes place.

  • What Nazarene did was she went out and she surveyed a number

  • of these market buildings that characterize this kind of area.

  • Many of these are multi-floor, three floors in this case.

  • They've grown up over many years.

  • They're relatively unplanned and undersigned.

  • But they're designed, if you like, on the ground,