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  • Do you feel trapped

  • in a broken economic model?

  • A model that's trashing the living world

  • and threatens the lives of our descendants?

  • A model that excludes billions of people

  • while making a handful unimaginably rich?

  • That sorts us into winners and losers,

  • and then blames the losers for their misfortune?

  • Welcome to neoliberalism,

  • the zombie doctrine that never seems to die,

  • however comprehensively it is discredited.

  • Now you might have imagined that the financial crisis of 2008

  • would have led to the collapse of neoliberalism.

  • After all, it exposed its central features,

  • which were deregulating business and finance,

  • tearing down public protections,

  • throwing us into extreme competition with each other,

  • as, well, just a little bit flawed.

  • And intellectually, it did collapse.

  • But still, it dominates our lives.

  • Why?

  • Well, I believe the answer is that we have not yet produced

  • a new story with which to replace it.

  • Stories are the means by which we navigate the world.

  • They allow us to interpret its complex and contradictory signals.

  • When we want to make sense of something,

  • the sense we seek is not scientific sense

  • but narrative fidelity.

  • Does what we are hearing reflect the way

  • that we expect humans and the world to behave?

  • Does it hang together?

  • Does it progress

  • as a story should progress?

  • Now, we are creatures of narrative,

  • and a string of facts and figures, however important facts and figures are --

  • and, you know, I'm an empiricist, I believe in facts and figures --

  • but those facts and figures have no power to displace a persuasive story.

  • The only thing that can replace a story

  • is a story.

  • You cannot take away someone's story

  • without giving them a new one.

  • And it's not just stories in general that we are attuned to,

  • but particular narrative structures.

  • There are a number of basic plots that we use again and again,

  • and in politics there is one basic plot

  • which turns out to be tremendously powerful,

  • and I call this "the restoration story."

  • It goes as follows.

  • Disorder afflicts the land,

  • caused by powerful and nefarious forces

  • working against the interests of humanity.

  • But the hero will revolt against this disorder,

  • fight those powerful forces,

  • against the odds overthrow them

  • and restore harmony to the land.

  • You've heard this story before.

  • It's the Bible story.

  • It's the "Harry Potter" story.

  • It's the "Lord of the Rings" story.

  • It's the "Narnia" story.

  • But it's also the story

  • that has accompanied almost every political and religious transformation

  • going back millennia.

  • In fact, we could go as far as to say

  • that without a powerful new restoration story,

  • a political and religious transformation

  • might not be able to happen.

  • It's that important.

  • After laissez-faire economics triggered the Great Depression,

  • John Maynard Keynes sat down to write a new economics,

  • and what he did was to tell a restoration story,

  • and it went something like this.

  • Disorder afflicts the land!

  • (Laughter)

  • Caused by the powerful and nefarious forces of the economic elite,

  • which have captured the world's wealth.

  • But the hero of the story,

  • the enabling state, supported by working class and middle class people,

  • will contest that disorder,

  • will fight those powerful forces by redistributing wealth,

  • and through spending public money on public goods

  • will generate income and jobs,

  • restoring harmony to the land.

  • Now like all good restoration stories,

  • this one resonated across the political spectrum.

  • Democrats and Republicans, labor and conservatives,

  • left and right all became, broadly, Keynesian.

  • Then, when Keynesianism ran into trouble

  • in the 1970s,

  • the neoliberals, people like Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman,

  • came forward with their new restoration story,

  • and it went something like this.

  • You'll never guess what's coming.

  • (Laughter)

  • Disorder afflicts the land!

  • Caused by the powerful and nefarious forces

  • of the overmighty state,

  • whose collectivizing tendencies crush freedom and individualism

  • and opportunity.

  • But the hero of the story, the entrepreneur,

  • will fight those powerful forces,

  • roll back the state,

  • and through creating wealth and opportunity,

  • restore harmony to the land.

  • And that story also resonated across the political spectrum.

  • Republicans and Democrats, conservatives and labor,

  • they all became, broadly, neoliberal.

  • Opposite stories

  • with an identical narrative structure.

  • Then, in 2008,

  • the neoliberal story fell apart,

  • and its opponents came forward with ...

  • nothing.

  • No new restoration story!

  • The best they had to offer was a watered-down neoliberalism

  • or a microwaved Keynesianism.

  • And that is why we're stuck.

  • Without that new story,

  • we are stuck with the old failed story

  • that keeps on failing.

  • Despair is the state we fall into

  • when our imagination fails.

  • When we have no story that explains the present

  • and describes the future,

  • hope evaporates.

  • Political failure is at heart

  • a failure of imagination.

  • Without a restoration story

  • that can tell us where we need to go,

  • nothing is going to change,

  • but with such a restoration story,

  • almost everything can change.

  • The story we need to tell

  • is a story which will appeal to as wide a range of people as possible,

  • crossing political fault lines.

  • It should resonate with deep needs and desires.

  • It should be simple and intelligible,

  • and it should be grounded in reality.

  • Now, I admit that all of this sounds like a bit of a tall order.

  • But I believe that in Western nations,

  • there is actually a story like this

  • waiting to be told.

  • Over the past few years,

  • there's been a fascinating convergence of findings

  • in several different sciences,

  • in psychology and anthropology and neuroscience and evolutionary biology,

  • and they all tell us something pretty amazing:

  • that human beings have got this massive capacity for altruism.

  • Sure, we all have a bit of selfishness and greed inside us,

  • but in most people, those are not our dominant values.

  • And we also turn out to be the supreme cooperators.

  • We survived the African savannas,

  • despite being weaker and slower than our predators and most of our prey,

  • by an amazing ability to engage in mutual aid,

  • and that urge to cooperate has been hardwired into our minds

  • through natural selection.

  • These are the central, crucial facts about humankind:

  • our amazing altruism and cooperation.

  • But something has gone horribly wrong.

  • Disorder afflicts the land.

  • (Laughter)

  • Our good nature has been thwarted by several forces,

  • but I think the most powerful of them is the dominant political narrative

  • of our times,

  • which tells us that we should live in extreme individualism

  • and competition with each other.

  • It pushes us to fight each other, to fear and mistrust each other.

  • It atomizes society.

  • It weakens the social bonds that make our lives worth living.

  • And into that vacuum

  • grow these violent, intolerant forces.

  • We are a society of altruists,

  • but we are governed by psychopaths.

  • (Applause)

  • But it doesn't have to be like this.

  • It really doesn't,

  • because we have this incredible capacity for togetherness and belonging,

  • and by invoking that capacity,

  • we can recover those amazing components of our humanity:

  • our altruism and cooperation.

  • Where there is atomization, we can build a thriving civic life

  • with a rich participatory culture.

  • Where we find ourselves crushed between market and state,

  • we can build an economics that respects both people and planet.

  • And we can create this economics around that great neglected sphere,

  • the commons.

  • The commons is neither market nor state, capitalism nor communism,

  • but it consists of three main elements:

  • a particular resource;

  • a particular community that manages that resource;

  • and the rules and negotiations the community develops to manage it.

  • Think of community broadband or community energy cooperatives

  • or the shared land for growing fruit and vegetables

  • that in Britain we call allotments.

  • A common can't be sold, it can't be given away,

  • and its benefits are shared equally among the members of the community.

  • Where we have been ignored and exploited,

  • we can revive our politics.

  • We can recover democracy from the people who have captured it.

  • We can use new rules and methods of elections

  • to ensure that financial power never trumps democratic power again.

  • (Applause)

  • Representative democracy should be tempered by participatory democracy

  • so that we can refine our political choices,

  • and that choice should be exercised as much as possible at the local level.

  • If something can be decided locally, it shouldn't be determined nationally.

  • And I call all this the politics of belonging.

  • Now, I think this has got the potential to appeal

  • across quite a wide range of people,

  • and the reason for this is that among the very few values

  • that both left and right share

  • are belonging and community.

  • And we might mean slightly different things by them,

  • but at least we start with some language in common.

  • In fact, you can see a lot of politics as being a search for belonging.

  • Even fascists seek community,

  • albeit a frighteningly homogenous community

  • where everyone looks the same and wears the same uniform

  • and chants the same slogans.

  • What we need to create is a community based on bridging networks,

  • not bonding networks.

  • Now a bonding network brings together people from a homogenous group,

  • whereas a bridging network brings together people from different groups.

  • And my belief is that if we create

  • sufficiently rich and vibrant bridging communities,

  • we can thwart the urge for people to burrow into the security

  • of a homogenous bonding community

  • defending themselves against the other.

  • So in summary,

  • our new story could go something like this.

  • Disorder afflicts the land!

  • (Laughter)

  • Caused by the powerful and nefarious forces

  • of people who say there's no such thing as society,

  • who tell us that our highest purpose in life

  • is to fight like stray dogs over a dustbin.

  • But the heroes of the story, us,

  • we'll revolt against this disorder.

  • We will fight those nefarious forces by building rich, engaging,

  • inclusive and generous communities,

  • and, in doing so,

  • we will restore harmony to the land.

  • (Applause)

  • Now whether or not you feel this is the right story,

  • I hope you'll agree that we need one.

  • We need a new restoration story,

  • which is going to guide us out of the mess we're in,

  • which tells us why we're in the mess and tells us how to get out of that mess.

  • And that story, if we tell it right,

  • will infect the minds of people across the political spectrum.

  • Our task is to tell the story that lights the path to a better world.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Do you feel trapped

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B1 US TED restoration disorder political land powerful

【TED】George Monbiot: The new political story that could change everything (The new political story that could change everything | George Monbiot)

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    林宜悉 posted on 2019/09/05