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Hi Students, today we will be studying about
the Anatomy of the Neck. This is Dr Yusuf

and these are the specific objects
which are followed in the College of

Medicine, Al Jouf University. The first
object is - Describe fasciae of the neck

and give their importance.
The second one is enumerate the
structures in the anterior median plane of

the neck from above downwards.
Third is, mention the actions and nerve

supply of sternocleidomastoid muscle,
mention its relations and clinical

importance. Fourth is outline the triangles
of the neck and list the contents of

each. Fifth is identify the super hyoid as
well as the infrahyoid muscles and give

their actions and nerve supply. So these
are some of the objectives which we'll

discuss one by one. To begin with - if you
see the neck, neck is a very important

structure through which the lower part
of the body will be in connection with

the head and neck. So a lot of
structures will be entering from the, the

lower part from the thoracic region to
the head and neck and many structures will

be descending downwards from the head
and neck into the thoracic region and

this connection is very important here
and this is confined to a very small

area called as the neck. Before we discuss
about the neck itself will be discussing

em when we reflect the skin and
superficial fascia, there is a very

important fascia, deep fascia called as the deep cervical fascia of the neck which is also
called as Fascia Colli. This the fascia which
covers all the structures of the neck

and give us an additional support as
well as covering so to defy it is a

facial which invests the muscles of the
neck and fills up the

interval between muscles, vessels and
cervical

viscera. So it's a fascia which invests the
muscles of the neck so it covers totally

the muscles of the neck, gives protection
to that, gives an additional support and

fills the interval between muscles, vessels & cervical viscera. So it covers
the structure separately the vessels and
cervical viscera which are there like the

trachea itself, the esophagus, the thyroid gland. All these are covered by a special
facial which is called as the deep cervical facial of the neck. It has three layers or three
parts, one is called at the investing
layer of the deep cervical fascia which is

the outermost covering. So if you
see here in this picture this is how it

looks like to be more precise will go to
the next picture here if you can see

here this is the cross section of the
neck seen from above and you can see

here the the blue colored line, just below
the skin and the platysma muscle here

there is a deep fascia, this is .. this blue line is called as investing layer
of deep cervical fascia. It is covering
the whole of the neck as well as it is

giving extra support as well as covering the muscles here, both in the
anterior part as well as the posterior part.
Here if you see the sternocleidomastoid

muscle, behind it is the trapezius muscle.
So it covers on either side of these

muscles
Ok, so this fascia which is outer most of
the three fascias, which covers the

whole of the neck. This is the investing
layer of of deep cervical fascia. The

second fascia is called as the pre-tracheal fascia which is in front of the
trachea, so that's why it is called as pre-tracheal, it can be much more clearly
seen in this picture the cross-section
where it is around the trachea, this is the

trachea here and here is the esophagus and these are the two lobess of the
thyroid gland and around that there is a
fascia which is covering, this is called

as the pre-tracheal fascia, because it is
in front

of the trachea so it is called as pre, pre means front. So pre-tracheal
fascia which covers the, not only in the
front of the trachea but also on sides as well

behind, not only the trachea itself but also
the thryoid glands, esophagus and other

structures. Then the third fascia which is there which is around the vertebras is called
as the pre-vertebral because it is in front
of the vertebras. In this picture, if you

see here these are the vertebras, this is
the spinal cord and in front of that you

can see that is a fascia which is called as the prevertebral fascia. To be more precise
in this picture is much more clear. Here
you can see the the vertebral column and

this is the spinal cord inside and
around that there are important muscles

surrounding this vertebral column
itself and all the whole of this

structures, the muscles, the vertebra
itself, the spine cord, everything is covered by a

additional fascia around all these
structures and this is called as the pre

vertebral fascia. So its mentioned here the
pre-vertebral, this pink line this is

the pre-vertebral fascia. This orange line
this is the pre-tracheal fascia and

outermost is the, of the three fascias
this is the investing layer of the deep
cervical fascia. These are the fascias which

are around the neck and covering very
important structures in the neck. Along with

that there is an additional fascia which
covers some very important structures

especially if you can see here, this is
the fascia and it covers very important

such as like the common carotid artery. So
that's why it is called carotid sheath

because it covers the
common carotid artery as well as its

terminal branches - the external and internal carotid arteries, especially the internal carotid.
Then this is the internal jugular vein and here is the vagus nerve. There are
three important structures within the
carotid sheath, there is a common character

and its branches, terminal branches. This
is the internal jugular vein and the

vagus nerve. All these three structures
are covered by a special covering,
this is called as the carotid sheath. This is also

part of the deep cervical fascia. So all these fascia are the part of the deep cervical
fascia of the neck which is also called
the Fascia Colli. So these fasciae will

divide the whole of neck into
compartments, one is called the visceral

compartment, Viscera means the organs
like the pretracheal as well as the

prevertebral fascia where there are
important structures like the trachea, esophagus,

thyroid gland and other structures so
because these fasciae... this part of the

fascia will be covering important
structures there, the organs (visceras) so

that's why it is called as the pre.....
this is called the visceral compartment.

So this is a visceral compartment where
the importance visceras like esophagus, trachea

thyroid gland and here the vertebral
column itself, the spinal cord, the

muscles. So all these, the pre-vertebral
and pre-tracheal fascia will be

called as visceral compartment. There is
also a very important component is called

as the Neuro-vasacular compartment. Neuro means nerves and the vascular means vessels the
arteries and the veins. So this is in case
in case of the carotid sheath where it is covering

very important neurovascular components
neuro is the nerve i.e., is the Vagus nerve

here and the vascular that is the artery
and vein, the common carotid artery as well

as the internal jugular vein. All these
structures are covered by a separate

part of the deep cervical fascia. So this will
divide this into a separate

neuro-vascular compartment.
Ok, so this is called as the neuro-vascular
compartment inside which the carotid

sheath where the internet carotid artery,
the internal jugular vein and the vagus nerve are

present. Why there should be fascia?
So some of the important functions of
the fascia of the neck have been mentioned here

first of all it acts as a covering and
also as a protective barrier, after the

skin
this will act as the second layer of defensive mechanism for any
kind of external attack by the bacteria, viruses or anything like that. So it acts
as a
protective barrier, as well as, it acts as a
the covering to all the structures in

the neck. There are important structures in
the neck, so it has to be covered by

extra structure. So this is called as
the .... this is covering of the neck as well as also

it acts as a protective barrier. It gives
passage to very important structures as

I said like the nerves and arteries. If
you can see here, it is getting passage from

the artery like the common carotid artery
it is passing from the thorax

and it is going into the, the head and
neck part and it supplies, it gives the

arteries, the branches. the two terminal
branches, the external carotid artery

as well as the internet carotid artery. The
internal carotid artery will be one of the

two important arteries which will supply
the brain and the external carotid

artery will be supplying all the
structures in the neck as well as the

face. So these are very important
structures which are passing from, from

the thorax into the head & neck part. Also
the vein, the internal jugular vein is

draining the head and neck and face and
brain into back into the the thoracic

region, as well as the vagus nerve which
is one of the cranial nerve which is

coming from the brain and it supplies
very important structures. It act as a

component of the autonomic nervous
system and it will be supplying not only

the heart, the lungs. the GIT, many
structures. So this fascia will be a

very important.
It gives passage for many, very
important structures to move upwards and

downwards smoothly without any hindrance.
The third thing, important feature,
feature of this importance of this

fascia is, if there is in case of any
infection, then the pus will be confined

to that area. If there is some infection
here in this component or here somewhere

so it will be confined to that party,
doesn't spread to the all of the neck. So

again as I said there are very important
structures in the neck. So if there is

any infection so it should not spread to
other parts, so

because of this fascia, the infections
and the pus collection will be confined

to that particular area and it prevents
the spreading of infection from one part

to the other side. If there is any
infection here, it will not go to the

other side or to here or somewhere
else. So this will, this fascia will acts

as a barrier for the spread of any infection
to any other parts. Fourth is, it gives

additional support to the muscles and
other structures. If you see here the

sternocleidomastoid or trapezius, they have their own origin and insertion, ie., the
actually support the support of that
muscle but additionally this fascia

will, if you can see here it is totally
covered by this fascia. This fascia

splits into two, the anterior layer and
posterior layer and it totally covers this

muscle. This is giving an additional
support to these muscles and other

structures. So here also can see the
carotid sheath is covering the

structures, the arteries and the vein
and nerve and giving an additional

support. So this fascia will also acts
as a very important structure

which will give additional support to muscles and other structures. So these are some of
the, the importance of having a fascia in the neck. One is it acts as a covering
second it protects from... acts as a protective barrier and protects from the
infection like any bacteria, virus or
something like that. It gives important

passage for the structures, important
structures like the nerves, arteries and veins and if

there is any infection it will be
confined to that area and prevent the

spread of infection and the puss to
other parts and fourthly it gives

additional support to muscles and other
structures. So these are some of the

importance of the fascia in the neck
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Deep Fascia of the Neck

105 Folder Collection
cwchow2015 published on March 2, 2019
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