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  • [CLOCK COUNTING DOWN]

  • [THEME MUSIC]

  • Welcome to a new edition of CNN 10.

  • We are your source for objective explanations of the day's news,

  • and I'm your host, Carl Azuz.

  • It's great to be with you this Tuesday.

  • The partial shutdown of the US government,

  • which has directly affected about 25% of its workforce,

  • is now 32 days old.

  • The previous record was 21 days.

  • The main reason why this one's gone on so long

  • is because Democrats and Republicans are so dug in.

  • They've been unwilling to compromise on what they want.

  • For President Donald Trump, and other Republicans,

  • that's $5.7 billion in funding to build a barrier

  • between the US and Mexico.

  • For Democrats, that's a wall they don't want to be built,

  • and don't want to approve the money for.

  • On Saturday, President Trump made a speech, and an offer,

  • from the White House.

  • In exchange for funding for the border wall, or barrier,

  • he said that people, who were illegally brought in to the US

  • as children, would be allowed to stay for an additional three

  • years without the threat of being deported, sent

  • back to their home countries.

  • Some others, who were temporarily

  • allowed to stay in the US because of instability

  • in their home countries, were also included

  • in the president's offer.

  • Republican leaders say this is a reasonable and fair

  • compromise that could end the partial government shutdown.

  • But some other Republicans say it

  • goes too far in helping people who are in the US illegally.

  • House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, and other Democrats,

  • said the offer was unacceptable, partly because it includes

  • proposals that Democrats have already rejected,

  • and partly because it didn't include

  • permanent protections for undocumented immigrants,

  • something Democrats want.

  • Negotiations between Republicans and Democrats

  • have continued throughout the shutdown, but an end to it

  • is still nowhere in sight.

  • On Monday, President Trump and Vice President Mike Pence

  • attended a wreath laying service at the Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • Memorial on the National Mall.

  • It was one of several events across America held

  • in honor of the renowned civil rights leader

  • on the day named after him.

  • Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is a federal holiday that

  • was first observed in 1986.

  • It's held on the third Monday of each January,

  • because the date is near his birthday of January 15, 1929.

  • Despite the fact that it's not a workday for federal staff,

  • and many other Americans, they're encouraged to make it

  • a day on, instead of a day off.

  • The holiday was designated as a National Day of Service

  • in 1994, with volunteering and working on community projects

  • all part of the event.

  • Yesterday, observances took place from Columbia,

  • South Carolina to Memphis, Tennessee,

  • and from San Antonio, Texas to Ebenezer Baptist Church

  • in Atlanta, Georgia, where Dr. Martin Luther King,

  • Jr. and his father both served as pastors.

  • For his work in civil rights, the younger Dr. King

  • became "Time Magazine's" Man of the Year.

  • He won the Nobel Peace Prize.

  • And he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom

  • nine years after he was assassinated in 1968.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

  • DAVID REITZEL: So tonight, we have

  • a supermoon, because it's full and it's close to the earth.

  • It is a wolf moon, because it's the January full moon,

  • and it's a blood moon, because it's a total eclipse.

  • So we have a super wolf blood moon eclipse,

  • according to some folks.

  • [MUSIC PLAYING]

  • [THEME MUSIC]

  • CARL AZUZ: 10 Second Trivia.

  • An oyster can produce a pearl by covering a grain of sand

  • with what substance?

  • Nacre, ocrea, scarab, or carob?

  • [BEEPING SOUNDS]

  • When a tiny intruder, like a grain of sand,

  • enters an oyster, it covers them with nacre that forms a pearl.

  • But if you like eating oysters, you're not going

  • to chip a tooth on a pearl.

  • The kind that produce gems are in a different family

  • than the kind we eat.

  • Still, they're valuable, and not just because they're edible.

  • Live oysters can filter 50 gallons of water a day.

  • Their shells make great fertilizer.

  • And the parts that restaurants throw away

  • can be used to shore up New York City.

  • RACHEL CRANE: What if I told you that, over 200 years ago,

  • some of the best oysters in the world

  • were being harvested here?

  • PETE MALINOWSKI: When Europeans first

  • arrived in New York Harbor, there

  • were oyster reefs everywhere--

  • 200,000 acres of oyster reef.

  • KATE ORFF: They were once a big part

  • of the culture of New York, part of the food

  • culture of New York.

  • Oysters used to be sold on basically like hot dog carts.

  • RACHEL CRANE: What happened to them?

  • PETE MALINOWSKI: We eat them.

  • RACHEL CRANE: Early New York boomed on an oyster economy,

  • but it turns out these oyster reefs

  • had a much more important role.

  • [SHIP HORN BLOWING]

  • KATE ORFF: We had tragedy happen in Superstorm Sandy.

  • People lost their lives.

  • There were waves hitting structures,

  • because this rich, 3D mosaic of protective wetlands

  • is no longer there.

  • RACHEL CRANE: That's something a team of designers and engineers

  • are trying to solve.

  • Funded by a federal disaster relief grant,

  • and designed by SCAPE, a landscape architecture firm,

  • The Living Breakwaters Project is meant to safeguard part

  • of New York City's coastline.

  • KATE ORFF: It's a roughly two-mile long chain

  • of breakwaters that are designed in an ecological way

  • to create fish habitat.

  • It is at reducing risk and the incredible wave action

  • that was faced by communities.

  • RACHEL CRANE: And a major component of the project

  • is the small and briny oyster.

  • KATE ORFF: Oysters our ecosystem engineers in the harbor.

  • They help to agglomerate and create reefs.

  • They filter water.

  • They clean water.

  • PETE MALINOWSKI: The oyster reefs

  • actually reduce the impact of storms and storm surges,

  • and things like that.

  • When you had a complex three dimensional shoreline

  • that has both oyster reefs and salt marsh, and all of that

  • working together.

  • RACHEL CRANE: In other words, before New Yorkers

  • polluted and over harvested their harbor,

  • oyster reefs used to provide a natural protection

  • against big waves, like the ones produced by Hurricane Sandy.

  • PETE MALINOWSKI: Without the oyster reefs,

  • the whole shoreline has fundamentally changed.

  • New York is more vulnerable to storms.

  • RACHEL CRANE: That's why, since 2014, the nonprofit Billion

  • Oyster Project has been working to restore

  • the city's oyster reefs.

  • The group starts by collecting restaurants' discarded oyster

  • shells, drying them, and then seeding

  • them with oyster larvae.

  • Once back in the water, those shells become the habitat

  • for other oysters to build on.

  • So far, about 28 million oysters have

  • been installed in various sites around the harbor.

  • And while the water quality of the harbor has improved,

  • the number of oysters in the water

  • is only a tiny portion of what it used to be,

  • and they're still not safe to eat.

  • But something recently changed.

  • PETE MALINOWSKI: For a restoration to be successful,

  • you need the recruitment of wild oysters from the system.

  • RACHEL CRANE: Meaning wild baby oysters

  • need to be able to find these reef installations,

  • in order to latch on and establish

  • a home for themselves.

  • PETE MALINOWSKI: That's something

  • we've seen, in very small numbers,

  • periodically, over the years.

  • So then we started looking in earnest at all of our sites

  • around the city, and it's true for just about everywhere

  • we have oysters, that this year there's just

  • a lot more natural recruitment.

  • - It's a baby oyster!

  • - Oh, my god!

  • - Wait, that's so cool!

  • PETE MALINOWSKI: So that's a really exciting sign.

  • RACHEL CRANE: A large scale arrival of wild baby oysters

  • is good news for the Living Breakwaters Project.

  • PETE MALINOWSKI: Oysters are not going to keep

  • the water out of New York.

  • But oysters, combined with breakwaters,

  • can be an integrated solution.

  • KATE ORFF: These breakwaters are seeded with oysters,

  • and oysters will agglomerate on the structure, attach on to it,

  • grow, and form their own kind of layer of complexity on top.

  • It's also a social enterprise, in the sense

  • that we're engaging schoolchildren

  • and teachers through the Billion Oyster Project.

  • - So these guys are basically forming a reef.

  • They're building more and more structure.

  • RACHEL CRANE: The Living Breakwaters Project

  • will be in construction through 2020,

  • but rebuilding an entire ecosystem can take time.

  • Orff thinks that, by 2050, the habitat around the breakwaters

  • will be fully revitalized.

  • KATE ORFF: I think New Yorkers need

  • to get into this new paradigm of being a coastal city again,

  • living with water, embracing our watery context, not fortifying

  • ourselves off, but understanding what it means to live

  • with this kind of risk, and really preparing for it,

  • and being smart about it.

  • [SHIP HORN BLOWING]

  • [THEME MUSIC]

  • CARL AZUZ: Whether you love gazing

  • at the sunrise or the sunset, this hotel could

  • let you see 16 of them per day.

  • It's the world's first space hotel,

  • or is it space's first world hotel.

  • Right now, it's neither.

  • The low orbit sleeper is just a proposal at this point.

  • But if it gets built, developers say

  • you could be staying in it in the year 2021, that is,

  • if you have 9 and 1/2 million dollars to spend

  • on a 12-day space-cation.

  • While it's not exactly a breath of fresh air,

  • it's where all the stars stay.

  • There's plenty of space available.

  • It's great for weight loss.

  • And, if everything airlocks up properly,

  • there's nothing to atmos-fear.

  • I'm Carl Azuz, and that's CNN.

  • [THEME MUSIC]

[CLOCK COUNTING DOWN]

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[CNN 10] January 22, 2019

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    Yukiko posted on 2019/01/31
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