Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Today, I'm going to teach you five common English reductions. Which is something many, many, many English learners really want to learn. So I will talk about that with you coming right up. Welcome to today's lesson, which is a pronunciation lesson because I am going to talk to you about five common reductions in English. And I think a lot of people would like to learn more about reductions. Or they're interested in learning about them because it helps people reduce their accent. And it's not only good for speaking, but it's also very important for listening as well. Often times, learners want to try and identify each and every single word. And it makes the task more challenging. Instead of just trying to comprehend the main idea. So this is not only good for speaking, but it's also important for listening so that you have a better understanding of the conversation and what the other person is talking about. And the reason that I think people use reductions is... it's just something that comes naturally. I think this is common in all languages when people are speaking fast and the words kind of just run together. Now, the one thing that I want to tell you about reductions, and this is a pet peeve of mine. This is only for speaking. Alright. Please, please, please, please please do not write these reductions. I know that you see this done all the time. You get text messages using reductions. You see it on Facebook and on the internet. But a good rule of thumb, a good practice, is just not to write these reductions. The reason for this is because I think some learners don't always make the distinction between what is accepted and in informal writing and then their formal writing. So they might end up using and writing these reductions at school, in academic papers. Or writing them at work in a business email. And it is just not professional. It's not something that you want to get into the habit of doing. So please, please, please do not write these reductions. This is just for speaking. And listening. The first two reductions that I want to go over with you are two that you have probably heard and maybe you even use them as well. And that is /gonna/ and /wanna/. They sound like one word that would have two syllables. And the stress is on the first syllable. That second syllable has the schwa that /uh/ sound. which is a reduced vowel sound. And also notice there is no T sound in "to." It basically goes from that N sound that /nnn/ straight into the schwa. First let's talk a little bit more about going to which is reduced as /gonna/. Now we use this when we're talking about something that we are going to do, and it's used with the verb (to be). So we have our subject, and then the verb (to be), plus going to, plus the base verb. So for example, I could say... I am going to give this video a thumbs up. I am going to give this video a thumbs up. So remember going to, when it's reduced, is followed by a base verb. Going to play... Going to dance... Going to go... Be aware that if "going to" is followed by a noun, as in we're talking about a place that we are going to go, then it is not reduced. So for example... "Going to" is followed by the noun school, so we are not going to reduce that. We do not say... No. In order for it to be reduced it has to be followed by a base verb. I don't know what I'm going to do later. I really don't know. Don't know what I'm going to do. So let's practice saying some sentences. Ioana is going to say the sentence with the reduction, and you can just repeat after her. This is good practice. Here are some other examples of "going to" getting reduced to /gonna/. So see if you can listen for it. Let's have a look at "want to" /wanna/. Now, we use this and reduce "want to" when the verb want is followed by the infinitive. Which is TO + the base verb. For example... Sure you do. Want to... Do something... What do you want to do? Now keep in mind, we can't reduce "want to" if the subject is in the third person, and we're using he, she, or it. This is because when our subject is he, she, or it we have to put an -s on the end of "want" so that it becomes "wants." So the subject and the verb agree. Now "wants to" we cannot reduce that. You just have to say "wants to". Let's practice a few more sentences using this reduction. Once again Ioana is going to say the sentence, and you can repeat it after her out loud. Now here are a few more examples using this reduction in different contexts and situations. The next two reductions I want to talk to you about are "has to" /hasta/ and "have to" /hafta/. Now these reductions also sound like they may be one word with two syllables. And again, the stress is on the first syllable and the second syllable is once again reduced with that schwa sound. That /uh/ sound. In these reductions you do hear that T sound. That /tuh/ at the end. So you're going to say... You're going to use your tongue and press it to the top part of your mouth. And that's going to stop the air flowing out. Once you stop it, then you just make that /tuh/ T sound. The same with "have to." You're making that F sound and you are blocking the flow of air with your tongue. Push it up against the top part of your mouth. Now when you say the reduction, it all happens very fast. But you should feel your tongue touching the top of your mouth and blocking that flow of air as you make that /tuh/ sound. Now, we use these reductions "has to" and "have to" when they are modal verbs, and we're talking about an obligation. Something that you have to do. And when the subject is I, you, we, they you're going to use "have." For example... Why? Because... These are obligations. These are things that I have to do. "Has to" /hasta/ is is the same. Except we're going to use it with the subjects he, she, or it. So for example. I could say that... Maybe he has to study because his parents think that... But he didn't study, and because of that... Here are some more example sentences using "has to" and "have to". Again, have fun. Say them out loud. You don't have to say them, but I think you should. And now I want you to listen how these reductions "has to" and "have to" are being used in these examples. The final English reduction I want to tell you about is "got to" /gotta/. This also would have two syllables with the stress on the first syllable. And the second syllable would have the schwa. Now the T, and this is especially important in American English. The way Americans talk. It has that Flap T sound, which is like a light D. And this is what happens when the T falls in the middle of the word. So for example, look at these words. The T is in the middle, which will sound more like a D sound. And "got to" is no different. The T is in the middle, so Americans would tend to use the flap T. Which makes it sound like /gotta/. This is reduced, "got to," when it is a modal verb used with "have." So have got to ... It's again talking about an obligation. And it's definitely reduced when "have" is contracted with the subject. This is also true with "has" if the subject is he, she, it. We could also drop "have" and say /gotta/. And this is definitely more informal and commonly used in more colloquial speech when you're just having a conversation with somebody. Talking about something that you /gotta/ do or I /gotta/ do. So for example, here are a few things that you've got to do. First, you got to keep practicing your English skills. Second, you got to watch these lessons. Finally, you got to join our social media classes. It's just a lot of fun. And it's a great way to keep practicing. And for your practicing pleasure, here are some more sentences using this reduction. So you've got to repeat these sentences, and you've got to say them out loud. And now let's listen to "got to" being used in different contexts. I hope you guys have a better understanding about how to use these reductions, and also maybe it'll help you when you are listening for them as well. Remember don't write them. This is only for speaking. So now we want to hear from you. And what you got to do is write to us in the comments. And let us know what kind of English lesson you would like. What are you having trouble with? What would you like to see more of?