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  • All this may seem very close to fiction,

  • but the artificial intelligence is already present in the daily lives of all people.

  • For example, in the development of video games that

  • use this type of study to create more complex games.

  • In football games, each player has very specific and

  • similar characteristics to those of a real competitor.

  • That is, one is better to pass but runs less than the other.

  • The Intelligent Systems techniques are applied to simulate this action.

  • Another example is the cameras that make the autofocus

  • on people's faces or shooting to find a smile.

  • Even in spell checkers of computer word processors,

  • an intelligent system is necessary to detect that there is a

  • syntax problem in the sentence and provide a possible fix.

  • Many people complain that the broker always errs.

  • But we must remember that, as intelligent systems

  • simulate the human, they make mistakes like us.

  • This is designed for you to have many questions about a subject so controversial

  • that arouses an enormous curiosity about the world, but also frightened.

  • Artificial Intelligence - History

  • The term "artificial intelligence" was created in 1956

  • upon the occasion of the important meeting at Dartmouth,

  • where they met minds like Allen Newell, Herbert Simon,

  • Marvin Minsky, Oliver Selfridge and John McCarthy.

  • At the end of the 50 born the symbolic processing with a result of efforts

  • Newell, Simon, and J. C. Shaw that instead of building systems based on numbers,

  • engineered systems capable of manipulating symbols.

  • Thus, the different currents of thought in Artificial Intelligence, now called

  • "Distributed Intelligence" have studied ways to establish, on the machines,

  • "intelligent" behavior, which could be easily expressed by Minsky in the

  • book Semantic Information Processing, "How do computers understand things?"

  • The term "Artificial Intelligence" can refer to an entire universe of

  • programming techniques used to try to solve problems more efficiently

  • than algorithmic solutions and the closest to the intelligent human behavior."

  • Main Technical

  • They stand out in the large family of techniques of

  • artificial intelligence, the following research fields:

  • A) natural language, which addresses a set of techniques aimed at the

  • recognition and generation of natural language, written and spoken.

  • The main applications are in the field of universal translators,

  • editors and the mining of texts and controls voice devices;

  • B) automation and robotics, i.e., the set of technological resources

  • that aim to create autonomous robots, able to learn and make decisions;

  • many of these systems are already in operation

  • and have been reported here in Hypescience.

  • C) perceptual systems, which aim to create

  • visual pattern recognition systems, sound, and

  • textures, to simulate and enhance the perception, whether optical, hearing or touch.

  • Its main applications are in the medical

  • diagnostic field and industrial quality control;

  • D) expert systems, which capture the knowledge in defined areas

  • of knowledge and human experience, using it in decision-making.

  • Observe currently important applications in medical diagnostics,

  • identification of chemical compounds and in decision-making

  • processes of business managers and brokers in the stock market.

  • A special feature of expert systems is the occurrence of

  • systems that support the decision in case-based reasoning;

  • E) genetic algorithms, which consist of several troubleshooting techniques based

  • on the principles of Darwinian evolution, or mutation breeding and selection.

  • They are used to solve problems involving a large number of variables and calculations,

  • such as the Fairings Aerodynamic projects

  • developed by aerospace and automotive industry.

  • F) intelligent agents that characterize the set

  • of stand-alone software that works in networks,

  • or in parallel to a primary software created to

  • achieve predictable, precise and repetitive tasks.

  • For example, operating systems, software that manage

  • e-mail and network tools are hosts for intelligent agents.

  • Noteworthy is its primary applications in the management

  • of large volumes of information, such as, for example,

  • in the stock market in search engines and the internet

  • in the monitoring and management of e-commerce;

  • G) neural networks, which are simulations of the human brain

  • processing patterns, such as plasticity and learning.

  • Has its architecture based on an approximation of the animal brain and instead

  • of being present, the neural network "learns" a particular training environment?

  • Its construction is based on Perceptron, a discrete component

  • that tends to simulate the physical behavior of a neuron.

  • The association of thousands of perceptrons obtained enough

  • plastic networks, which can recognize complex patterns,

  • such as cracks in metal welds in pipelines or quality

  • of an apple, diagnosed by color patterns of its bark.

  • In this book, we will talk about artificial intelligence from

  • the time that we would never think that such a concept existed.

  • The artificial intelligence is older than you think

  • The area is divided into two parts:

  • AI symbolic, which is connected to the psychology;

  • and the connectionism, or artificial neural networks, which comes from neurophysiology.

  • The latter, for reference, was that Google mentioned when he

  • explained how the AlphaGo, AI Robot DeepMind trained to play Go.

  • Computer science is a new field of study, but not artificial intelligence.

  • It is beyond the Greek philosophers, of Plato, of Aristotle.

  • It is very interesting to observe these scholars of the past.

  • They will reassemble and building what we understand today as a scientific model.

  • Not today we address tools of artificial intelligence in Tecnoblog.

  • We see Google leveraging technology to beat world champions

  • complex board games and even combat Aedes aegypti.

  • Microsoft has signaled several investments in the area, either

  • with "human capacity" or application of Microsoft Research.

  • What few people know is that it is one of the ...

  • old news, being idealized in time to before Christ.

  • Artificial intelligence, although much more palpable today, comes to the

  • Greek philosophers and had a breakthrough also in the twentieth century.

  • To understand what exactly this term, we need to

  • turn to the origin of artificial intelligence.

  • It is an area of computer science in which researchers

  • sought different realities of an only programmatic model.

  • Not to solve simple problems, such as adding two numbers,

  • intending to create a kind of thinking in computing.

  • Artificial intelligence in antiquity

  • Not that existed systems that did things for themselves, but the idea of a non-human

  • intelligence that thought itself was already conceived, according to the professor.

  • He says Aristotle, teacher of Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia (in

  • ancient Greece), thinking about how to free the slave of your business.

  • The slave was treated like nothing in the social aspect.

  • He imagined the following:

  • is an object like a broom, or an element that makes cleaning,

  • can have an own will and establish the storage system?

  • Thus, we would not need more than slave labor.

  • These guys saw that it was not cool to have this

  • domain and sacrifice of another human being.

  • He invented robotics in 300 B.C.

  • Philosophers were asking things like, "will be a slave in possession of

  • innate information (which come with the nature of man), could learn math?".

  • Of course yes.

  • The revolutionary is the line of thinking because they have

  • idealized cognitive science, which deals with human learning.

  • Development of Science

  • The 50s can be considered the time of the golden years of artificial intelligence.

  • There was a psychological chain called "behaviorists"

  • who treated science as only the act of human behavior:

  • his hand holding a doorknob turns because you want to open the door, for example.

  • According to the doctor, this is not a good explanation.

  • "I have to have information processing, which is what cognitive science does."

  • "It is not only an input box, input, and output.

  • I wonder what's in here [the box].

  • It is what artificial intelligence studies, know what's in this big box.

  • Artificial intelligence branches in many areas, from games to philosophy.

  • We can imagine this science as a significant

  • capillarity, which can be applied mainly at all."

  • The key, then, is to understand that artificial

  • intelligence is one, but its reach is huge.

  • Fernando works in this area for 40 years,

  • going from music and computing (in the 90s!)

  • to a homodinamic description of the functioning

  • of the heart with the lungs, in 1983.

  • This concept of artificial intelligence has been well established for several years.

  • What we know today as artificial intelligence was detailed in

  • a Congress by Professor John McCarthy of Stanford University.

  • He began using the term in the conference

  • made from Dartmouth College in New Hampshire.

  • At the time, there were already several theories of complexity,

  • language simulation, neural networks and learning machines.

  • He decided to give the name of artificial intelligence to

  • those of human imagination systems that use computer science.

  • Several engineers, mathematicians, psychologists

  • and neuroscientists participated.

  • The capacity and electronic functionality doubled every 18

  • months, an almost exponential growth that almost kept up.

  • Participants of the Congress left there believing that one

  • day computers would be able to be as smart as humans.

  • Well, it has not happened yet.

  • Still, McCarthy made great advances in his laboratory, one of the

  • first dedicated to the development of artificial intelligence.

  • He won the Turing Award in 1971, given the computer scientists

  • who have made outstanding contributions to the area.

  • Fernando points out that this award is basically the Nobel of computer science.

  • Turing test

  • The name comes from the mathematician Alan Turing,

  • portrayed in the movie The Imitation Game.

  • Turing is also one of the forerunners in the area of artificial intelligence,