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• In this video, I'm gonna provide an introduction to SPSS and PASW. So, first off, lemme just

• say that regarding the name, SPSS, PASW, two different names for the same program. And

• I'm gonna refer to it as SPSS. Now I'm working on version eighteen, which is, should be basically

• the same as slightly older and slightly newer versions. And lemme just say this introduction

• is more for people who've had little to no experience with SPSS. In future videos, things

• will get more advanced. So first off, what is SPSS. Well, it's a pretty popular program

• for statistical analysis. It's used most often in the behavioral sciences like psychology,

• but it can do lots of different things and it works well for lots of different fields.

• And it's great because you can do really complex statistical analyses with just a few mouse

• clicks. The downside is that you're pretty far removed from the actual calculations.

• For that reason, these videos are gonna focus mostly on just how to use SPSS. If you want

• more of a conceptual explanation of the different statistical procedures, I recommend you check

• out my other series of videos, Excel for statistics. Now a few caveats about SPSS: like I said,

• it's pretty easy to run analyses, but your data have to be set up in just the right way.

• And when you do run the analyses, you often get a lot more than you need in the output

• window. So a trick to using this program is knowing where to look for relevant information.

• So let's start with the basics, there are two view modes to SPSS, there's data view

• and variable view. Data view, which we're in right now, is basically just a spreadsheet,

• and this is where you see all your data and this is where you enter in all your data.

• Each row is dedicated to one participant or subject or case, and each column is dedicated

• to a different variable, or type of measurement you're taking from each one of the participants.

• So just try popping in some numbers, I'll just do one, two, three. You'll see that as

• you enter in a number in a column, that column kind of comes to life. The variable automatically

• gets named, and it's properties are set by default. However, notice the name is V-A-R,

• zero-zero-zero-one. That stands for variable one, if you type in more number, more properties,

• or more variables that get defined, and their default names will be variable two, variable

• three, variable four, and this can get kind of confusing especially if you have lots of

• variables and they're all named almost exactly the same thing. And also, the default properties

• for each variable may not be exactly what you want, so we should learn how to change

• some of those things. So we change them in variable view, and you can get to that by

• clicking on that little button in the lower left. This lists all your variables in rows,

• and all the properties are in columns. And I'm just gonna go ahead and delete variable

• two because we don't need that right now. The first property, and probably one of the

• more important ones, is name. I recommend you change this immediately to something more

• descriptive.. You can call it anything you want, but it just can't have spaces in it,

• special characters, and it can't start with a number. So just double click on that, and

• just highlight it, you can change it to something. You don't need to worry about what it does

• and doesn't allow because if you do something it doesn't like, like having a space, if you

• hit enter, it will say variable contains illegal character. So just try something else. I'll

• try random underscore name. Camel case works equally well. So now we have a slightly more

• descriptive name, which will help us differentiate our different variables. If you want something

• even more descriptive, you can go over here to label, and here you can call it literally

• anything you want. There's no restrictions on what you call it. When you run analyses,

• this name will show up in the output window. It's not gonna show up in data view, in data

• view you just have whatever the name is. But the label will show up in the apple window,

• property is type. Type reflects what kind of data you're dealing with. The default is

• numeric, which indicates you're dealing with numbers. You can also change this to dates,

• if you're recording dates, or dollar amounts. Or a string variable, which is basically letters

• or words. And honestly, for the most part if you're analyzing data, I think numeric

• will be okay, for most of what you're doing. And probably only the other type of property

• you need to worry about right now is measure, which is over on the right. Now this specifies

• what scale of measurement you're using. A stats book will usually tell you that the

• four scales of measurement are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. If you wanna know more

• about that I recommend you just find a stats book and read about it. The only thing I'll

• say about it right now is that SPSS, in SPSS, nominal means nominal, ordinal means ordinal,

• but if you're dealing with interval or ratio scales, SPSS has the same setting for both

• of those, it calls them both scale. And for the most part you'll be okay leaving it set

• to scale. I'll quickly mention some of the other properties--width, over here on the

• left. This specifies how wide or narrow your column will be, or sorry, how wide or narrow

• the entries can be if you're dealing with string variables. Which we're not, so we can

• just forget about that. Decimals specifies how many decimal places we'll show. Column,

• that's what specifies how wide or narrow your columns will be in data view. I find it kind

• of redundant though because you can just modify that in data view with your cursor, just moving

• it around like that, so not too necessary. Align right here, it just left justifies,

• right justifies, or center justifies the numbers in each cell of the spreadsheet in data view.

• Just the same way that Excel or Microsoft Word would do. And for the most part I leave

• the default. There are some other properties like values, and missing, which can be pretty

• useful, there's also a role over here on the right. We'll get to those in later videos,

• for now don't worry about them. So when you're dealing with SPSS, you're pretty much just

• switching back and forth between variable view and data view. You can also get to variable

• view from data view just by clicking on the variable name, it'll take you right back there,

• and you can get back to data view by clicking on each row of the variable. So that's pretty

• much the basics of SPSS in terms of at least navigating and what everything is. In the

• next video we'll start plugging in numbers and running some calculations.

In this video, I'm gonna provide an introduction to SPSS and PASW. So, first off, lemme just

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B1 variable data view column ordinal default

# SPSS for Beginners 1--Introduction

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Chor Lee posted on 2017/04/09
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