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Hi, I'm Oli. Welcome to Oxford Online English. Today, we have a pronunciation lesson about
verbs ending in '-ed'. Now, hopefully you already know that most past verbs end in '-ed'.
You might also know that past verbs ending in '-ed' are not all pronounced the same way.
For example: planned, asked, decided. In all these three words, the '-ed' ending is pronounced
differently. Can you hear the difference? In 'planned', '-ed' is pronounced with a /d/
sound, like the 'd' in 'dog'. In 'asked' the '-ed' ending is pronounced with a /t/ sound,
like the 't' in 'time'. And, in 'decided' the '-ed' ending is pronounced with an /id/
sound, like the 'id' in 'did'. In order to understand this topic clearly, you need to
know some pronunciation concepts. First of all, there are two types of sound in English.
Vowels are sounds made by the letters 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o' and 'u'. Consonants are sounds
made by all other letters: 'b', 'c', 'd', 'f' and so on. There are two types of consonant
sound. One kind of consonant sound is called 'voiced'. This means that when you make the
sound, you use the muscles in your throat. Some examples of voiced sounds are /b/, /v/
and /g/. Try saying /b/, as in 'banana'. If you put your fingers on your throat, you should
feel the muscles in your throat move when you make the /b/ sound:'banana'. You can feel
a vibration here. The other kind of consonant sound is called 'unvoiced'. This means that
when you make the sound, the air comes straight from your lungs, and you don't use the muscles
in your throat. Examples of unvoiced sounds are /p/, /f/ and /k/. Try saying 'parent'.
You can check that you're saying the sound correctly in two ways: first, put your fingers
on your throat, like before. When you make the /p/ sound, you shouldn't feel anything
in your throat:'parent'. There's no vibration here. Secondly, put your hand over your mouth
and say /p/. You should feel some air come out. When you say /b/, which is a voiced sound,
you shouldn't feel any air come out. So, we started talking about the pronunciation of
'-ed' endings in verbs, and now we're talking about consonant sounds, throat muscles and
so on. Why? Well, because the pronunciation of an '-ed' ending depends on the sound before
it. After a voiced consonant or a vowel, '-ed' is pronounced /d/. For example: 'lived' - /v/
is a voiced consonant, so the '-ed' ending is pronounced /d/. 'Called' - /l/ is a voiced
sound, so '-ed' is pronounced /d/. 'Worried' - the verb 'worry' ends with a vowel sound,
so the '-ed' ending has a /d/ sound. After unvoiced consonants, '-ed' is pronounced /t/.
For example, in 'laughed', /f/ is unvoiced, so '-ed' becomes /t/: 'laugh-/t/'. In 'missed',
/s/ is an unvoiced sound, so again, we pronounce the '-ed' ending with a /t/ sound: 'miss-/t/'.
In 'watched', /tʃ/ is unvoiced, so again, '-ed' becomes /t/. Finally, after the consonant
sounds /d/ or /t/, '-ed' is pronounced /ɪd/: 'wanted', 'waited', 'landed', 'ended'. This
is the easiest rule to remember, because it's very regular, and it's more simple than the
other rules. All you have to remember is that after /d/ or /t/, '-ed' becomes /ɪd/. What
about the other two rules? Do you need to learn the difference between voiced and unvoiced
consonants? I would say probably not, because it's a lot of information to remember, and
it's not practical to use this kind of rule when you're trying to speak. You can't think
quickly enough to use that! But, it is useful to know that there is some logic here. It
might be a good idea to have a list of voiced or unvoiced consonants, so that you can check
the pronunciation if you're not sure. If you're watching this lesson on YouTube, you can find
a list of voiced and unvoiced consonant sounds in the text of the video, which is on our
website. OK, that's the end of the lesson, so thanks very much for watching. I hope it
was useful for you, and I'll see you next time. Bye bye!
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How To Pronounce '-ED' Verb Endings - English Pronunciation Lesson

383 Folder Collection
pipus published on March 16, 2017
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