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  • Hello.

  • Welcome to Living English.

  • In today's episode we're looking at how to talk about possibilities...

  • ... or what is likely to happen.

  • And we're looking at a new verb tense, the present perfect.

  • But first it's time for 'Sisters and Brothers'.

  • In the last episode Anne had lunch with Sarah's family.

  • Now Anne and Sarah are having a talk.

  • I'm sorry about my brother.

  • Not at all.

  • You have a lovely family.

  • You all seem so happy.

  • Anne, what's the matter?

  • There's something I haven't told you.

  • What's that?

  • When I met your brother...

  • ... I was thinking about my brother David.

  • I haven't seen him for two years.

  • How come?

  • He's missing.

  • [...] I came to Australia to find him.

  • I'm so sorry.

  • Have you got any [...]?

  • Not yet.

  • I've hired a private investigator.

  • [...].

  • Do you think he'll find him?

  • Perhaps.

  • I don't know.

  • It's been a long time since David's last call.

  • What do you think's happened to him?

  • Have you any idea?

  • I really don't know.

  • I can't help thinking the worst.

  • I'm sure he's alright.

  • If something bad had happened, you would have heard.

  • I guess so.

  • I suppose you're right.

  • Let's hope Anne's brother is alright.

  • We'll find out in future episodes.

  • Well, let's look at some of the common expressions in that episode.

  • First Sarah apologises for her brother's behavior.

  • Remember in the last episode Sarah's brother Steve offered to take Anne out.

  • You're lucky.

  • I haven't been to the zoo.

  • I'd love to go to the zoo.

  • I'll take you.

  • Sarah thinks Steve was a bit rude.

  • So she apologises.

  • She says she is sorry about his behavior.

  • I'm sorry about my brother.

  • Not at all.

  • You have a lovely family.

  • Sarah says she is sorry about her brother.

  • Practice with the clip.

  • I'm sorry about my brother.

  • Not at all.

  • You have a lovely family.

  • Anne says 'Not at all'.

  • She means Sarah shouldn't worry.

  • She is not upset or offended.

  • Remember in a previous episode we looked at the phrase 'Don't mention it'.

  • 'Not at all' is another way of saying 'Don't mention it'.

  • Practice with the clip.

  • I'm sorry about my brother.

  • You have a lovely family.

  • Anne tells Sarah she is looking for her brother who is missing.

  • Listen to this clip.

  • I've hired a private investigator.

  • Anne says she has hired a private investigator.

  • She has hired a detective.

  • This is an example of present perfect tense.

  • She hired a detective.

  • And the detective is still working.

  • Present perfect is used for actions started in the past that are still true.

  • Present perfect is made from a verb have...

  • ... and a past participle of another verb.

  • First let's look at the verb have.

  • Repeat them with me.

  • I have.

  • He has.

  • She has.

  • It has.

  • You have.

  • We have.

  • They have.

  • In our example...

  • ... she has hired a detective.

  • The past participle of the verb to hire is hired.

  • So this can be added to the verb have or has...

  • ... to make the present perfect tense like this.

  • Usually we shorten the have and has like this.

  • So we would say 'I've hired a detective'.

  • She's hired a detective.

  • They've hired a detective.

  • That sounds like too many detectives.

  • Let's look at some other ways of using the present perfect.

  • Anne, what's the matter?

  • There's something I haven't told you.

  • Anne says 'There is something I haven't told you'.

  • This is the negative.

  • If Anne has told Sarah she would say...

  • ... 'I have told you' or 'I've told you'.

  • But she has not told Sarah about her brother.

  • So she says 'I have not told you'...

  • ... or 'I haven't told you'.

  • Practice with the clip.

  • Anne, what's the matter?

  • Anne, what's the matter?

  • There's something I haven't told you.

  • There is another example in the story. Listen.

  • When I met your brother...

  • ... I was thinking about my brother David.

  • I haven't seen him for two years.

  • Anne says she hasn't seen her brother for two years.

  • The last time she saw her brother was two years ago.

  • And up until today she still hasn't seen him.

  • That's very sad, isn't it?

  • Yes, it is. Hello Michelle.

  • Hello Brenton.

  • Two years is a long time not to see your brother.

  • How esle could Anne have said that?

  • Let's look at three little words...

  • ... for, since, and ago.

  • They're all used to talk about time in the past.

  • So if I say 'I haven't seen you for a week' what do I mean?

  • A week has passed.

  • And in all that time you haven't seen me.

  • So this is a week.

  • And you haven't seen me in all that time.

  • That's sad.

  • I could say 'I haven't seen you since last Monday'.

  • What does that mean?

  • Well.

  • You saw me last Monday.

  • And now you see me again.

  • And how wonderful it is.

  • So 'for' is used for a period of time that something goes on.

  • For a week.

  • For two hours.

  • For a year.

  • 'Since' is a specific time in the past.

  • Since 10 o'clock.

  • Since yesterday.

  • Since last year.

  • What about 'ago'?

  • You could say you saw me a week ago.

  • I saw you a week ago.

  • 'Ago' we use to a length of time before the present.

  • So we could say 'two hours ago'.

  • If it's twelve o'clock now what time was it two hours ago?

  • That would be ten o'clock.

  • And is it Monday today?

  • What day was it two days ago?

  • Saturday.

  • Exactly.

  • Now today we're going to look at some more very useful words.

  • First let's see another clip.

  • And my question is...

  • ... does Anne think the detective will find her brother?

  • Do you think he'll find him?

  • Perhaps.

  • I don't know.

  • Does Anne think the detective will find her brother?

  • She doesn't know.

  • How does she tell us this?

  • She says 'I don't know'.

  • Does she think he might?

  • She thinks it's possible.

  • She says 'perhaps'.

  • 'Perhaps' is a very useful word.

  • It means you don't know.

  • It is possible.

  • There's a number of words and phrases in English like this.

  • Let's look at some and see how to use them.

  • Here's a chart.

  • If you are sure the answer is no or you disagree with someone...

  • ... than you'll say 'definitely not'...