B2 High-Intermediate 1817 Folder Collection
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Immersion into virtual reality is a perception of being physically present
in a non-physical world. The perception is created by surrounding the user of
the VR system in images, sound or other stimuli that provide an engrossing total
environment. The name is a metaphoric use of the
experience of submersion applied to representation, fiction or simulation.
Immersion can also be defined as the state of consciousness where a "visitor"
or "immersant"’s awareness of physical self is transformed by being surrounded
in an artificial environment; used for describing partial or complete
suspension of disbelief, enabling action or reaction to stimulations encountered
in a virtual or artistic environment. The degree to which the virtual or
artistic environment faithfully reproduces reality determines the degree
of suspension of disbelief. The greater the suspension of disbelief, the greater
the degree of presence achieved. Types of immersion
According to Ernest W. Adams, author and consultant on game design, immersion can
be separated into three main categories: Tactical immersion
Tactical immersion is experienced when performing tactile operations that
involve skill. Players feel "in the zone" while perfecting actions that
result in success. Strategic immersion
Strategic immersion is more cerebral, and is associated with mental challenge.
Chess players experience strategic immersion when choosing a correct
solution among a broad array of possibilities.
Narrative immersion Narrative immersion occurs when players
become invested in a story, and is similar to what is experienced while
reading a book or watching a movie. Staffan Björk and Jussi Holopainen, in
Patterns In Game Design, divide immersion into similar categories, but
call them sensory-motoric immersion, cognitive immersion and emotional
immersion, respectively. In addition to these, they add a new category:
Spatial immersion Spatial immersion occurs when a player
feels the simulated world is perceptually convincing. The player
feels that he or she is really "there" and that a simulated world looks and
feels "real". Presence
Virtual reality glasses can produce a visceral feeling of being in a simulated
world, a form of spatial immersion called Presence. According to Oculus VR,
the technology requirements to achieve this visceral reaction are low-latency
and precise tracking of movements. Michael Abrash gave a talk on VR at
Steam Dev Days in 2014. According to the VR research team at Valve, all of the
following are needed to establish presence.
A wide field of view Adequate resolution
Low pixel persistence A high enough refresh rate
Global display where all pixels are illuminated simultaneously
Optics Optical calibration
Rock-solid tracking – translation with millimeter accuracy or better,
orientation with quarter degree accuracy or better, and volume of 1.5 meter or
more on a side Low latency
Immersive virtual reality Immersive virtual reality is a
hypothetical future technology that exists today as virtual reality art
projects, for the most part. It consists of immersion in an artificial
environment where the user feels just as immersed as they usually feel in
consensus reality. = Direct interaction of the nervous
system = The most considered method would be to
induce the sensations that made up the virtual reality in the nervous system
directly. In functionalism/conventional biology we interact with consensus
reality through the nervous system. Thus we receive all input from all the senses
as nerve impulses. It gives your neurons a feeling of heightened sensation. It
would involve the user receiving inputs as artificially stimulated nerve
impulses, the system would receive the CNS outputs and process them allowing
the user to interact with the virtual reality. Natural impulses between the
body and central nervous system would need to be prevented. This could be done
by blocking out natural impulses using nanorobots which attach themselves to
the brain wiring, whilst receiving the digital impulses of which describe the
virtual world, which could then be sent into the wiring of the brain. A feedback
system between the user and the computer which stores the information would also
be needed. Considering how much information would be required for such a
system, it is likely that it would be based on hypothetical forms of computer
technology. = Requirements =
Understanding of the nervous system A comprehensive understanding of which
nerve impulses correspond to which sensations, and which motor impulses
correspond to which muscle contractions will be required. This will allow the
correct sensations in the user, and actions in the virtual reality to occur.
The Blue Brain Project is the current, most promising research with the idea of
understanding how the brain works by building very large scale computer
models. Ability to manipulate CNS
The nervous system would obviously need to be manipulated. Whilst non-invasive
devices using radiation have been postulated, invasive cybernetic implants
are likely to become available sooner and be more accurate. Manipulation could
occur at any stage of the nervous system – the spinal cord is likely to be
simplest; as all nerves pass through here, this could be the only site of
manipulation. Molecular Nanotechnology is likely to provide the degree of
precision required and could allow the implant to be built inside the body
rather than be inserted by an operation. Computer hardware/software to process
inputs/outputs A very powerful computer would be
necessary for processing virtual reality complex enough to be nearly
indistinguishable from consensus reality and interacting with central nervous
system fast enough. Immersive digital environments
An immersive digital environment is an artificial, interactive,
computer-created scene or "world" within which a user can immerse themselves.
Immersive digital environments could be thought of as synonymous with Virtual
reality, but without the implication that actual "reality" is being
simulated. An immersive digital environment could be a model of reality,
but it could also be a complete fantasy user interface or abstraction, as long
as the user of the environment is immersed within it. The definition of
immersion is wide and variable, but here it is assumed to mean simply that the
user feels like they are part of the simulated "universe". The success with
which an immersive digital environment can actually immerse the user is
dependent on many factors such as believable 3D computer graphics,
surround sound, interactive user-input and other factors such as simplicity,
functionality and potential for enjoyment. New technologies are
currently under development which claim to bring realistic environmental effects
to the players' environment – effects like wind, seat vibration and ambient
lighting. = Perception =
To create a sense of full immersion, the 5 senses must perceive the digital
environment to be physically real. Immersive technology can perceptually
fool the senses through: Panoramic 3D displays
Surround sound acoustics Haptics and force feedback
Smell replication Taste replication
= Interaction = Once the senses reach a sufficient
belief that the digital environment is real, the user must then be able to
interact with the environment in a natural, intuitive manner. Various
immersive technologies such as gestural controls, motion tracking, and computer
vision respond to the user's actions and movements. Brain control interfaces
respond to the user's brainwave activity.
= Examples and applications = Training and rehearsal simulations run
the gamut from part task procedural training through situational simulation
to full motion simulations which train pilots or soldiers and law enforcement
in scenarios that are too dangerous to train in actual equipment using live
ordinance. Computer games from simple arcade to
Massively multiplayer online game and training programs such as flight and
driving simulators. Entertainment environments such as motion simulators
that immerse the riders/players in a virtual digital environment enhanced by
motion, visual and aural cues. Reality simulators, such as one of the Virunga
Mountains in Rwanda that takes you on a trip through the jungle to meet a tribe
of Mountain Gorillas. Or training versions such as one which simulates
taking a ride through human arteries and the heart to witness the buildup of
plaque and thus learn about cholesterol and health.
In parallel with scientist, artists like Knowbotic Research, Donna Cox, Rebecca
Allen, Robbie Cooper, Maurice Benayoun, Char Davies, and Jeffrey Shaw use the
potential of immersive virtual reality to create physiologic or symbolic
experiences and situations. Other examples of immersion technology
include physical environment / immersive space with surrounding digital
projections and sound such as the CAVE, and the use of head-mounted displays for
viewing movies, with head-tracking and computer control of the image presented,
so that the viewer appears to be inside the scene.. The next generation is
VIRTSIM, which achieves total immersion through motion capture and wireless head
mounted displays for teams of up to thirteen immersants enabling natural
movement through space and interaction in both the virtual and physical space
simultaneously. The use of immersive virtual reality in
the medical care New fields of studies linked to the
immersive virtual reality emerges every day. Researchers see a great potential
in virtual reality tests serving as complementary interview methods in
psychiatric care. Immersive virtual reality have in studies also been used
as an educational tool in which the visualization of psychotic states have
been used to get increased understanding of patients with similar symptoms. New
treatment methods are available for Schizophrenia and other newly developed
research areas where immersive virtual reality is expected to achieve
melioration is in education of surgical procedures, rehabilitation program from
injuries and surgeries and reduction of phantom limb pain.
Detrimental effects Simulation sickness, or simulator
sickness, is a condition where a person exhibits symptoms similar to motion
sickness caused by playing computervideo games.
Motion sickness due to virtual reality is very similar to simulation sickness
and motion sickness due to films. In virtual reality, however, the effect is
made more acute as all external reference points are blocked from
vision, the simulated images are three-dimensional and in some cases
stereo sound that may also give a sense of motion. Studies have shown that
exposure to rotational motions in a virtual environment can cause
significant increases in nausea and other symptoms of motion sickness.
Other behavioural changes such as stress, addiction, isolation and mood
changes are also discussed to be side-effects caused by immersive virtual
reality. See also
Alternate reality game Cave automatic virtual environment
Environmental sculpture Escapism
Immersive design Immersive technology
Interactive art Motion sickness
Narrative transportation Neo-conceptual art
Simulated reality Simulation sickness
Sound art Sound installation
Video installation Virtual art
Footnotes References
External links Annual Summit on Immersive Technology
[1] pdf download of Joseph Nechvatal's text book: Immersive Ideals / Critical
Distances. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. 2009
Audio and Game Immersion PhD thesis about game audio and immersion.
"Improvising Synesthesia: Comprovisation of Generative Graphics and Music" by
Joshua B. Mailman, in Leonardo Electronic Almanac v.19 no.3, Live
Visuals, 2013, pp. 352–84, about two immersive systems for improvising music
and graphics through dance-like motion detected by an infrared video camera and
other sensors.
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Immersion (virtual reality)

1817 Folder Collection
richardwang published on November 23, 2015
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