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  • Thank you for taking ten minutes for CNN's Student News.

  • I'm Carl Azuz reporting from the CNN center in Atlanta, Georgia.

  • First story today takes us to Europe.

  • For decades, European countries have made it relatively easy

  • for their citizens to travel freely between borders

  • but that freedom is being tested.

  • The threat of terrorism, the spread of crime,

  • and one factor deepening by the day,

  • Europe is facing it's largest refugee crisis since World War II.

  • Millions are crossing borders.

  • Some are migrants looking for job opportunities and a better life.

  • Many are refugees from war torn countries like Syria,

  • Iraq and Afghanistan.

  • An estimated 800, 000 people are expected to seek asylum in Germany this year.

  • That's four times the amount as last year.

  • German Chancellor Angela Merkel wants other European Union countries

  • to accept more of the refugees but nations like Greece and Italy

  • have said they don't have the resources to take care of all the people coming in.

  • European Union officials have scheduled an emergency meeting

  • for September 14th when they'll try to figure out a way forward in the crisis.

  • Over the past two years,

  • scientists say there was an increase in the amount of Arctic sea ice.

  • It grew by about a third in 2013, an unusually cool summer a likely factor.

  • But researchers don't think it will continue,

  • and if Arctic ice decreases in the years ahead,

  • like many scientists expect,

  • it could mean more business and research in the Arctic.

  • That's one reason why President Obama

  • wants the U. S. Coast Guard to build new ice breakers.

  • America has two that are fully functional,

  • Russia has 40 and because the Arctic is thought to

  • hold a wealth of mineral deposits,

  • there is an international race to stake claim in the region's natural resources.

  • On state controlled television, Russia projecting its power into the Arctic.

  • In recent months, the Kremlin has staged

  • some of its biggest ever military exercises in the region,

  • deploying a newly created Arctic brigade,

  • raising concerns this could be the next frigid flashpoint

  • in its standoff with the West.

  • Few know the Kremlin's ambitions better than Artur Chilingarov,

  • Russia's top Arctic explorer,

  • and President Putin's special adviser on Arctic affairs.

  • It's our home, the Arctic is Russia's home.

  • Lots of our regions are up there. We are the Arctic country.

  • We are in favor of international cooperation but, of course,

  • we care about Russia's security too.

  • Security, and resources.

  • Along with the other northern countries

  • with Arctic territories including the United States,

  • Russia is acutely aware of the vast potential beneath the melting ice.

  • Up to a quarter of the world's undiscovered oil and gas

  • but also the lucrative new trade routes opening up as the polar ice cap recedes.

  • It was Chilingarov who led a Russian expedition to the Arctic sea bed in 2007

  • to stake the country's claim to a vast swath of polar territory.

  • In recent weeks, Russia has resubmitted to the UN it's claim of sovereignty.

  • The issue has struck a nationalist chord among many Russians.

  • But protection of it's Arctic interests is emerging as a major Kremlin theme.

  • One which could easily draw Russia and it's Arctic neighbors into conflict.

  • Matthew Chance, CNN Moscow.

  • Back in the day, there were fewer restrictions o things

  • you can send through the mail.

  • Take children, for instance.

  • People used to mail their children.

  • In 1913, when parcel post started,

  • some families paid between $ 0. 10 and $ 0. 53

  • to get their kids from A to B but not in a package.

  • The children usually traveled with trusted postal service workers.

  • That changed in 1914,

  • when the postmaster general said human beings could not be mailed.

  • Now, that's random.

  • Okay. Next story.

  • According to U. S. Library of Congress,

  • the 14th Amendment to the Constitution

  • is cited in more court cases than any other document.

  • When it was ratified in 1868,

  • one significant change it made

  • was to guarantee citizenship to former slaves.

  • But the amendment is broad in scope

  • and it's still being debated today

  • by some candidates on the U. S. campaign trail.

  • The Constitution says if you're born on U. S. soil,

  • you automatically get citizenship.

  • Right? Well, some argue that's not even what the Constitution says.

  • Birthright citizenship is the concept

  • that any child born on U. S. soil automatically receives U. S. citizenship,

  • no matter where the child's parents are from.

  • The idea of citizenship birthright comes from the language

  • of the 14th Amendment, which says,

  • All persons born or naturalized in the United States,

  • and subject to the jurisdiction thereof,

  • are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside.

  • Now, when people read the language of the 14th Amendment,

  • they see the word born and they stop right there.

  • Not many people give a lot of thought to the part of that phrase,

  • subject to the jurisdiction thereof.

  • Most of us interpret that clause to mean as long as you're born here,

  • it doesn't matter who your parents are, you are a U. S. citizen.

  • Some are arguing that,

  • subject to the jurisdiction thereof means the parents

  • of the child must be U. S. citizens, as well.

  • Can birthright citizenship be taken away?

  • If it's not a Constitutional right to begin with, then absolutely.

  • But even if it is a Constitutional right, the Constitution can change.

  • That's what Amendments are for.

  • The Constitution has flip- flopped in the past.

  • If you know the capital of Bangladesh,

  • you'll know where we're starting today's Roll Call.

  • American International School Dhaka is in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  • Great to have you watching from southern Asia.

  • From the southern U. S .,

  • we're welcoming Mount Pleasant Junior High today.

  • It's in Mount Pleasant, Texas, the home of the Tigers.

  • In western Montana, it's the Wildcats who are wrapping up our roll,

  • Washington Middle School is in Mezula.

  • Want to avoid colds? Get more sleep.

  • It's not just what your momma told you.

  • A recent study published in the journal Sleep found

  • that people who slept more were less likely to get colds.

  • Researchers kept track of 164 men and women.

  • They were all exposed to rhinovirus,

  • which sounds scary but it's just the medical term for the common cold.

  • Eighteen percent of people

  • who slept six hours or more a night caught the cold,

  • 39 % who slept less than six hours got the virus.

  • One researcher summed it up by

  • saying more sleep seems to increase our immunity to colds.

  • We called in the doctor for some advice on getting more and better sleep.

  • You need about seven hours of sleep.

  • Those people out there who say they get by just fine on four or five hours, they don't.

  • If you're tired, you go to bed and you're just not falling asleep,

  • it's happened to me, happened to you.

  • Get up, get out of bed and do something else for a little bit.

  • You don't wanna start making your bed associated in your mind

  • with a place where you can lie awake.

  • Your bed should be a place where you're actually going to sleep.

  • This surprises a lot of people but when you don't sleep enough,

  • you actually start eating more.

  • We're not entirely sure why that happens

  • but it appears to be this area of the brain known as the satiation center

  • that part of the brain that allows you to feel full,

  • it's not quite as activated when you're not getting enough sleep.

  • If I can only do only one thing in a particular day,

  • either get another hour of sleep or do some exercise,

  • sleep would actually probably win.

  • There's probably been times when you've been dead sleepy at 9: 00

  • at night and then by 10: 00, you're wide awake again.

  • You sort of missed your window to go to sleep.

  • Take advantage of those windows.

  • Also, find what we call good sleep hygiene.

  • Usually, a little bit cooler in the room is better,

  • somewhere between 68 and 72 degrees.

  • You want to try to turn off the mobile devices

  • as much as you can ahead of time and look at what you're eating.

  • If you're eating a lot of caffeinated foods or foods

  • that are stimulating in any way, try to avoid those close to bedtime, as well.

  • When a football team gets down,

  • you might be thinking they're about to hike the ball.

  • Not here. As football camp wrapped up at Rutgers University,

  • the coach pitted the offense against the defense in a dance off.

  • Winner takes all. By all, we mean all the ice cream.

  • It didn't look like the pads slowed anyone down

  • but when a defensive tackle, who's 6'3'' and 295 pounds,

  • does the worm, you could say he wormed his way into victory.

  • The other side might of found that offensive

  • but in his defense he had moves that won the turf war.

  • His willingness to tackle the challenge

  • and score the defense some ice cream

  • probably helped to grid iron things out.

  • I'm done fumbling through puns. Hope you have a great Wednesday.

  • If you're on Instagram, check out my blooper from yesterday's show at instagram.com / cnnstudentnews

Thank you for taking ten minutes for CNN's Student News.

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