B2 High-Intermediate US 1836 Folder Collection
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HI, I'M RICK STEVES, VENTURING BEYOND EUROPE THIS TIME
TO BRING YOU MORE TRAVEL THRILLS THAN EVER.
WE'RE IN EASTERN TURKEY.
SWEEPING ACROSS EASTERN TURKEY,
WE'LL LEARN A KURDISH FOLK DANCE,
SEE A SILK ROAD PALACE,
WATCH A LITTLE OIL WRESTLING,
VISIT THE 4000-YEAR-OLD HOMETOWN OF ABRAHAM,
PONDER A MEGALOMANIAC KING'S ATTEMPT TO JOIN THE GODS,
AND HANG OUT WITH NOMADIC KURDS.
TURKEY BRIDGES EUROPE AND ASIA,
BOTH GEOGRAPHICALLY AND CULTURALLY.
BEGINNING IN THE FAR EAST NEAR ERZURUM,
WE CRUISE TO WHERE NOAH DOCKED ON MT. ARARAT,
TRAVEL TO LAKE VAN, DIYARBAKIR, HARRAN,
AND FINISH ATOP MT.NEMRUT.
MOST TOURISTS HIT THE WEST OF TURKEY.
BUT TURKEY'S A VAST LAND.
IT'S BIGGER THAN TEXAS WITH A POPULATION
OF 60 MILLION.
IT'S A CULTURAL BAKLAVA, RICHLY LAYERED WITH HISTORY AND PEOPLE.
WELL, FOR MOST TOURISTS, THE EAST OF TURKEY
IS JUST A VAST EMPTY SPOT ON THEIR MAP.
A VISIT HERE PAINTS A VIVID, IF COMPLICATED, HUMAN FACE
ON THIS PART OF YOUR GLOBE.
MOST PEOPLE IN THIS PART OF TURKEY LIVE
IN SIMPLE RURAL VILLAGES.
FAMILIES GO ABOUT DAILY LIFE AS THEY HAVE FOR GENERATIONS.
HEY, RICK.
HEY.
THIS IS REALLY GREAT, RICK, YOU HAVE TO SEE THIS.
♪♪
PEOPLE PLAY THIS WHENEVER THEY GET TOGETHER.
THEY'VE BEEN DOING IT FOR 4,000 YEARS,
SINCE THE TIME OF THE HITTITES.
AS BEFORE, I'M TEAMING UP WITH MY FRIEND
AND FELLOW TOUR GUIDE, MEHLIKA SEVAL.
MEHLI LEADS TOURS FOR ME THROUGH TURKEY,
BUT WE'VE KEPT SOME TIME OPEN TO MAKE THIS PROGRAM.
WHEN I FIRST VISITED EASTERN TURKEY,
MOST VILLAGES DIDN'T HAVE ELECTRICITY.
TODAY, EVEN WITH TVs AND SATELLITE DISHES,
REMOTE VILLAGES LIKE CAYIRBAG MAINTAIN THEIR TRADITIONAL
HAY, DUCK AND DUNG ECONOMIES.
IT'S LATE AUGUST AND WINTER PREPARATIONS ARE UNDERWAY.
STACKS OF HAY, CONE-SHAPED SO THE SNOW FALLS OFF,
ARE REMINDERS OF THE HARSH BITTER WINTERS.
THE HAY PROVIDES BOTH FOOD FOR THE ANIMALS AND INSULATION.
AND HAY IS EVEN TWISTED INTO ROPE TO BUNDLE MORE HAY.
USING ALL AVAILABLE RESOURCES IS A PART OF LIFE HERE.
COW PIES PROVIDE VITAL FUEL.
PEOPLE FROM LANDS WITH LOTS OF TREES ARE OFTEN UNAWARE
OF THE IMPORTANCE OF DRIED COW DUNG.
IT PROVIDES FUEL IN A LAND WHERE WOOD IS SCARCE.
THAT'S WHY MANY POOR COUNTRIES
TAKE SUCH GOOD CARE OF THEIR COWS.
FOR ALL THE FUEL THEY NEED, ALL THEY NEED IS TWO COWS.
THAT'S IT.
THEY HAVE IT FOR THE WHOLE THING.
AN ENTIRE FAMILY'S NEEDS?
AN ENTIRE FAMILY'S FUEL NEEDS, COOKING--
HEATING.
HEATING, EVERYTHING.
ERZURUM HAS LONG BEEN A LEADING CITY IN EASTERN TURKEY.
SO LOCALS REALLY CALL THIS THE PARIS OF THE EAST?
IF THEY HAVEN'T BEEN TO FRANCE, THEY DO.
ERZURUM HAS ALWAYS BEEN A GARRISON TOWN.
FOR 1500 YEARS THIS FORTRESS HAS STOOD LIKE A BREAKWATER,
TAKING WAVE AFTER WAVE OF ARMIES FROM THE EAST,
ONE OF WHICH WAS THE ETHNIC TURKS.
THEY ARRIVED IN ANATOLIA,
AS THE LAND TURKEY OCCUPIES IS CALLED,
IN THE 12th CENTURY.
THE FORTRESS IS NOW A CIVIC CENTER.
AND TODAY THE ONLY BATTLES FOUGHT ARE BETWEEN WRESTLERS.
THINGS START WITH AN OILY WARM-UP.
WRESTLING IS CONSIDERED THE UNIVERSAL COMBAT SPORT,
AND TURKS,
THEY'RE AMONG THE FINEST WRESTLERS IN THE WORLD.
THIS KIND OF WRESTLING CAME WITH THE TURKS
FROM CENTRAL ASIA 800 YEARS AGO.
THEY ARE TOUCHING EARTH,
SYMBOLIZING WE COME FROM EARTH,
WE GO TO EARTH,
THAT'S WHERE WE GET OUR ENERGY.
THEY'RE RECEIVING THE ENERGY.
SO EVERYBODY'S IN HERE RIGHT NOW.
WRESTLING IS A KIND OF ENTERTAINMENT,
SO IT STARTS WITH EVERYONE
OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS,
AND THEN THEY END UP
WITH THE BEST OF EACH AGE GROUP.
SO THIS IS CALLED OILED WRESTLING?
NOT JUST OILED WRESTLING.
IT'S CALLED OILED-GRASS WRESTLING,
GRASS BEING REMINISCENT
OF CENTRAL ASIAN PLAINS.
THIS IS REALLY FUN.
TURKISH WRESTLING IS ENTERTAINMENT.
JUST AS TURKISH WRESTLING CAME FROM CENTRAL ASIA,
SO DID OTHER ASPECTS OF TURKIC CULTURE.
THIS TILED MINARET HAS A SISTER IN THE CITY
OF SAMARKAND FAR TO THE EAST IN UZBEKISTAN.
TODAY, INSTEAD OF BEING INFLUENCED BY THE EAST,
TURKEY'S CULTURAL INFLUENCE IS OUTWARD.
TURKIC NATIONS FROM THE FORMER USSR, UZBEKISTAN, KAZAKSTAN,
TURKMENISTAN AND SO ON, STRETCH ALL THE WAY
TO THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.
NOW, WITH THE FALL OF THE SOVIET UNION,
THESE PEOPLE, OVER 100 MILLION, LOOK TO TURKEY
FOR CULTURAL LEADERSHIP.
AND WITH A VOICE-OF-AMERICA TYPE AGENDA,
TURKEY BROADCASTS CULTURAL NEWS TO THIS VAST REGION.
A COMMON DENOMINATOR FOR THESE PEOPLE IS ISLAM.
800 HUNDRED YEARS AGO, A GENERATION AFTER THEY ARRIVED,
THE TURKS BUILT THE ULU CAMII MOSQUE.
SO EVERY MUSLIM IS SUPPOSED TO MAKE
A PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA?
YOU KNOW, RICK, I THINK PART OF THE REASON FOR THIS
IS TO GET PEOPLE OUT AND SEE THE WORLD,
WITH MANY OTHERS AROUND THEM.
OUR PROPHET MOHAMMED SAID, "DON'T TELL ME HOW WELL
"EDUCATED YOU ARE OR HOW OLD YOU ARE.
"TELL ME HOW MUCH YOU HAVE TRAVELED.
THEN I'LL TELL YOU HOW MUCH YOU KNOW."
AND WE'VE GOT A LOT OF TRAVELING YET TO DO.
EASTERN TURKEY IS A VAST, HIGH PLATEAU.
ERZURUM IS AT ABOUT 6,000 FEET, AND TOWERING EVEN HIGHER,
DOMINATING THIS CORNER OF TURKEY, IS MT. ARARAT.
MANY PEOPLE, CHRISTIANS, JEWS, AND MUSLIMS,
KNOW MT. ARARAT FROM THE FLOOD STORY.
IT'S IN THE BIBLE, THE TORAH AND THE KORAN.
EACH SAYS THAT GOD SENT 40 DAYS OF RAIN
TO RID THE WORLD OF CORRUPTION.
AND NOAH, WITH HIS ANIMAL-FILLED ARK,
READY TO START THINGS OVER, LANDED HERE.
ARARAT STANDS WHERE ARMENIA, IRAN AND TURKEY COME TOGETHER.
IT'S ALMOST AS IF THEY PUSHED IT UP.
AT ABOUT 17,000 FEET, IT'S BY FAR
THE HIGHEST MOUNTAIN IN THE REGION.
THE NEXT STOP ON THIS ROAD IS THE BORDER OF IRAN.
THIS WAS THE SILK ROAD.
MARCO POLO MAY HAVE CROSSED THIS 12th CENTURY BRIDGE.
CAMEL CARAVANS LADEN WITH SILK AND SPICES BROUGHT THE RICHES
OF THE EAST INTO THE WEST.
WHOEVER CONTROLLED THIS VALLEY CONTROLLED THE TRADE.
EVEN TODAY, IT'S THE SCENE OF MODERN CARAVANS CARRYING
NOT SILK, BUT FARM GOODS, TEXTILES, AND LOTS OF OIL.
AND THIS IS ONE NUISANCE MARCO POLO NEVER DEALT WITH,
THE IRANIAN-TURKISH BORDER.
WITH CONTROL OF TRADE CAME WEALTH.
THE ISHAK PASA PALACE, BUILT IN THE 17th CENTURY
BY AN OTTOMAN GENERAL, OVERLOOKS THIS STRATEGIC
THOROUGHFARE OF CIVILIZATIONS.
THE MIX OF ARCHITECTURAL STYLES REFLECTS
THE CENTURIES-LONG PARADE OF TRADERS THAT TOGETHER
HAVE MADE THE COMPLEX ETHNIC MIX OF ANATOLIA.
SELCUK, OTTOMAN, PERSIAN, AND ARMENIAN:
ALL ARE CULTURES THAT HAVE LEFT THEIR MARK
THROUGHOUT THIS VAST REGION AT VARIOUS TIMES.
TO SEE THE REMAINS OF ONE OF THESE CULTURES,
WE'RE DRIVING TO LAKE VAN.
LAKE VAN IS VAST, ALMOST A SEA.
THE WATER HAS A HIGH SODIUM CARBONATE CONTENT.
YOU CAN DO YOUR LAUNDRY HERE WITHOUT SOAP,
OR CLEAN A LITTLEAW WOOL.
HO!
THE WATER FEELS SILKY.
FERRIES SHUTTLE VISITORS TO AKDAMAR ISLAND.
THERE'S SO LITTLE TOURISM IN THE AREA THAT WE HAVE
THE BOAT TO OURSELVES.
THIS REGION IS LITTERED WITH REMINDERS OF A REFINED
ARMENIAN CULTURE, NOW GONE.
OF THE GREAT ARMENIAN CHURCHES, PERHAPS THE MOST
BEAUTIFUL IS OUT HERE, ON THE ISLAND.
THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS DATES FROM 921 AD.
AFTER AN ARAB INVASION,
AN ARMENIAN PRINCE TOOK REFUGE ON THE ISLAND.
WHILE THE CHURCH HE BUILT IS QUITE RUINED,
SOME OF ITS ART, AS WELL AS ITS ACOUSTICS, SURVIVE.
THE OUTSIDE IS DECORATED WITH FINE RELIEFS,
SCENES FROM THE BIBLE.
HERE'S JONAH BEING SWALLOWED BY THE WHALE.
A THOUSAND YEARS AGO, SCULPTORS AROUND HERE
DIDN'T KNOW WHAT A WHALE LOOKED LIKE,
SO THEY CARVED A BIG FISH WITH A PIG'S HEAD.
HERE'S DAVID WITH HIS SLING PREPARING TO FELL GOLIATH.
AND HERE'S JESUS POCKED WITH BULLET HOLES,
REMINDERS OF CONFLICTS THIS CHURCH HAS WITNESSED
OVER THE CENTURIES.
A TRAGIC CONFLICT AROUND 1915 LED TO THE DESTRUCTION
OF THE ARMENIAN CULTURE IN THIS PART OF TURKEY.
WHILE THIS REGION'S MANY ETHNIC GROUPS HAVE SUFFERED MORE
THAN THEIR SHARE OF GRIEF, THE PLIGHT OF THE ARMENIAN
COMMUNITY HAS LEFT A BLACK MARK ON MODERN TURKISH HISTORY.
WHILE TURKS AND ARMENIANS DEBATE THE FACTS, SIGHTS LIKE THIS
REMIND ME OF A ONCE THRIVING ARMENIAN COMMUNITY.
HERE IN THE EAST YOU'LL FIND ALMOST NO TRAFFIC,
BUT DRIVERS ARE ADVISED TO STAY OFF THE ROADS AFTER DARK.
POLICE AND MILITARY CHECKS ARE ROUTINE.
YOU'LL SEE PLENTY OF SOLDIERS HERE AND THROUGHOUT TURKEY.
THE MILITARY KEEPS TURKEY STABLE IN A TROUBLED REGION
AND IT DEFENDS THE CONSTITUTIONALLY
REQUIRED SEPARATION OF MOSQUE AND STATE.
DISTANCES ARE GREAT AND WITH SO MANY SCENIC DISTRACTIONS,
DRIVES TAKE LONGER THAN THE MAP INDICATES.
HOW DEEP IS THIS?
GO AHEAD.
ALLOW TIME FOR PHOTO OPS AND BOUNCY REST STOPS.
RICK, DO WE HAVE TO DO IT?
WHO'S DOING THIS?
ALL RIGHT.
WHEREVER YOU STOP, YOU'RE NEVER FAR
FROM A GLASS OF REFRESHING TEA.
TRAVEL IN TURKEY IS A PACKAGE DEAL.
AND IT CAN BE ROUGH TRAVEL, LIKE THIS.
MANY WESTERNERS CALL THESE PORCELAIN FOOTPRINTS
TURKISH TOILETS.
BUT THEY'RE THE NORM FOR MOST OF THE WORLD.
IN FACT, PEOPLE IN MANY PARTS OF THE WORLD
FIND SIT-DOWN TOILETS THAT WE MIGHT CONSIDER NORMAL
JUST AS SHOCKING AS MY FIRST ENCOUNTER
WITH A TOILET LIKE THAT.
EASTERN TURKEY IS IDEAL FOR ADMIRING THE TIMELESS ART
OF LIVING WITH THE SEASONS.
THE NOMADIC LIFESTYLE IS AN ANCIENT ONE AROUND HERE.
FAMILIES AND THEIR ANIMALS USED TO ROAM FREELY,
BUT MODERN TIMES THREATEN THE NOMADIC WAYS.
MEHLI IS TAKING US TO MEET SOME KURDISH SHEPHERDS
CONTENT TO LIVE THE WAYS OF THEIR FOREFATHERS.
IT'S COOL UNDER THE GOAT-HAIR TENT.
SO HOW MANY FAMILIES ARE HERE TOGETHER?
[ DISCUSSION IN TURKISH ]
THREE.
[ DISCUSSION IN TURKISH ]
THEY HAVE RENTED THIS PLACE,
SO THEY'VE BEEN HERE FOR ONE YEAR.
THAT'S NOT THE TRADITIONAL NOMAD LIFE.
THEY USED TO BE ABLE
TO JUST TAKE OFF AND GO.
AND LAND WHEREVER THEY WANTED.
[ DISCUSSION IN TURKISH ]
THE CONVERSATION IS FILLED WITH PASSIONATE OPINIONS
THAT INEVITABLY CENTER ON COMPLEX TURKISH POLITICS.
I LEFT FEELING CONFIDENT THAT THESE PROUD PEOPLE
WILL CONTINUE FINDING WAYS TO LIVE IN A CHANGING WORLD.
KURDISH CULTURE REMAINS A VIBRANT PART OF TURKEY'S
ETHNIC TERRAIN.
MEHLI, A TOUR GUIDE WHO CAN MOVE MOUNTAINS
FOR A KODAK MOMENT, HAS ARRANGED FOR A GROUP
OF KURDISH DANCERS TO JOIN US FOR A MUSICAL PICNIC.
THESE STUDENTS WERE RAISED KNOWING FOLK DANCES,
NOT FOR TOURISTIC STAGE SHOWS,
BUT TO KEEP THEIR TRADITIONAL CULTURE ALIVE.
THERE ARE 10 MILLION KURDISH PEOPLE IN TURKEY,
BUT ONLY IN THE SOUTHEAST ARE THEY A MAJORITY.
WHILE MANY WANT THEIR OWN COUNTRY,
MOST, WHILE WANTING TO DEAL WITH THEIR PROBLEMS,
ARE CONTENT TO BE KURDISH TURKS.
TURKISH HAS TWO MEANINGS, POLITICAL AND ETHNIC.
JUST AS YOU'LL FIND POLISH AND NORWEGIAN AMERICANS,
YOU CAN FIND ARMENIAN AND KURDISH TURKS.
MODERN TURKEY WAS BORN IN 1923 AND,
ACCORDING TO THE CONSTITUTION, ANYONE WHO LIVES HERE
IS WELCOME TO CONSIDER THEMSELVES POLITICALLY TURKISH.
OKAY.
THIS 1200-YEAR-OLD BRIDGE CROSSES THE FAMED TIGRIS RIVER.
IT LEADS TO THE WALLED CITY OF DIYABAKIR,
THE MAIN CITY OF SOUTHEAST TURKEY.
GROWING UP AT A CROSSROADS, DIYABAKIR HAS HOSTED ASSYRIANS,
PERSIANS, ALEXANDER THE GREAT, ROMANS, ARABS, AND TURKS.
TODAY, MOST OF ITS POPULATION IS KURDISH.
DIYABAKIR IS SWOLLEN WITH NOMADS AND VILLAGERS,
WHO, FEELING UNSAFE IN THE DISPUTED HILLS,
HAVE MOVED IN TO WAIT OUT THE TROUBLES.
HIGHLY SKILLED IN THE COUNTRY, THEY'RE STRUGGLING IN THE CITY.
WHILE THERE'S VIRTUALLY NO TOURISM, THERE'S PLENTY
OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY.
HI, I'LL TAKE ONE.
THERE YOU GO.
TESHEKUR.
THE COURTYARD OF THE MOSQUE IS A COOL REFUGE
FOR THOSE AWAITING THE CALL TO PRAYER,
OR THE STRAY TOURIST NEEDING A BREAK
FROM THE INTENSITY OF THE CITY.
IN MOST EASTERN CITIES, I OPT FOR THE TOP-END HOTEL.
ABOUT THE PRICE OF A SIMPLE HOTEL IN EUROPE,
IT AFFORDS A REFUGE WITH THE NECESSARY COMFORTS
TO KEEP ME HEALTHY AND WELL RESTED.
THROUGHOUT TURKEY, FROM THE HUMBLE B AND Bs
TO THE FANCIEST BUSINESS HOTELS,
BREAKFASTS ARE PREDICTABLE.
YOU'VE GOT OLIVES, WHITE CHEESE, TOMATOES,
CUCUMBER, HARD-BOILED EGGS, WATERMELON, FRESH BREAD,
AND MY FAVORITE, YOGURT WITH HONEY.
TESHEKUR.
AND TO DRINK?
TEA OR COFFEE AND SOME TERRIBLE INSTANT ORANGE DRINK.
WE'RE HEADING SOUTH, TOWARD THE SYRIAN BORDER.
ETHNIC STRUGGLES AND REFUGEES ARE NOTHING NEW TO THIS LAND.
IN FACT, 4,000 YEARS AGO, ABRAHAM AND HIS FOLLOWERS
WALKED THESE PLAINS SEARCHING FOR A HOMELAND.
ACCORDING TO THE BIBLE, ABRAHAM SETTLED HERE,
IN HARRAN, ON HIS WAY TO THE PROMISED LAND
IN CANAAN, THAT'S ISRAEL, ABOUT 300 MILES TO THE SOUTH.
THAT WAS ABOUT 1900 BC.
HARRAN IS ONE OF THE OLDEST CONTINUOUSLY INHABITED
PLACES ON EARTH.
THESE CONICAL HOUSES WORKED WELL IN ABRAHAM'S DAY,
AND THEY STILL DO.
THE CONICAL SHAPE KEEPS THE INSIDE COOL,
AND THE BABY HAPPY,
EVEN THOUGH IT'S WELL OVER 100 DEGREES OUTSIDE.
CENTURIES OF WIND AND WARRIORS
HAVE ROUNDED THE CORNERS OF HARRAN'S FORTRESS.
BUT IT SEEMS THE PEOPLE AND THEIR WAYS OF LIFE
HAVE CHANGED LITTLE.
TURKEY'S CULTURAL DIVERSITY SHOWS ITSELF IN SUBTLE WAYS.
FOR INSTANCE, ETHNIC GROUPS TIE THEIR HEAD SCARVES
DIFFERENTLY.
THE WOMEN OF THE BLACK SEA COVER THEIR HEAD THIS WAY.
IN CENTRAL ANATOLIA, THE WOMEN CHOOSE ANOTHER STYLE.
AND MY FRIEND, NAILA, AN ARAB TURK,
COVERS HER HAIR THIS WAY.
HARRAN'S WOMEN WEAR SCARVES BOTH FOR MODESTY
AND FOR PROTECTION FROM THE DRY HEAT AND BLOWING SAND.
THIS ARID REGION HAS BEEN SHORT OF WATER
SINCE ABRAHAM'S TIME.
BUT TODAY, IRRIGATION CANALS ARE BRINGING SMILES
AND NEW LIFE TO THE AREA.
WITH THE HELP OF THE LARGEST IRRIGATION PROJECT
OF TURKISH HISTORY, THE AREA ANTICIPATES A BOOM TIME.
FORMERLY PARCHED LAND IS BECOMING LUSH.
AS INCOMES ARE EXPECTED TO SKYROCKET, LOCAL MEN
WILL NO LONGER DREAM OF GOING ABROAD FOR A GOOD PAYCHECK.
THIS IS THE ATATURK DAM.
IT'S THE BIGGEST OF 22 DAMS
IN THE SOUTHEAST ANATOLIAN PROJECT.
THIS IS BIG NEWS FOR TURKEY.
IT'LL GENERATE ONE-FIFTH THE COUNTRY'S ELECTRICAL NEEDS,
IT'LL PROVIDE WATER TO IRRIGATE ONE-FIFTH OF ITS ARABLE LAND,
AND IT'LL HELP EMPLOY 10 MILLION PEOPLE.
ONE OF THE GREAT TREATS FOR ANY VISITOR
TO EASTERN TURKEY IS A TRIP TO THE ROYAL TOMB
CROWNING MT. NEMRUT.
A ROAD TAKES US TO WITHIN A SHORT HIKE
OF ITS 7,000-FOOT SUMMIT.
THIS MOUNTAIN IS A STUDY IN MEGALOMANIA.
THE TOP 150 FEET IS ACTUALLY A MAN-MADE PILE
OF SLAVE-CRUSHED ROCK,
DECORATED BY HUGE STATUES OF THE GODS AND KING ANTIOCHUS.
ABOUT THE TIME OF CHRIST, ANTIOCHUS RULED A SMALL STATE
BETWEEN HUGE EMPIRES IN THE EAST AND WEST.
ARTFULLY KEEPING EAST AND WEST HAPPY
IS HOW HE SURVIVED POLITICALLY,
AND HE WENT TO HIS GRAVE USING THE SAME TACTICS.
FOR INSTANCE, THIS STATUE REPRESENTS TWO GODS.
THE GREEK GOD ZEUS,
HERE WE SEE GREEK FACIAL FEATURES AND BEARD,
AND THE PERSIAN GOD, AHURA MAZDA, WITH EASTERN HEADGEAR.
WITH AN IMPRESSIVE TWIST OF THEOLOGY,
ANTIOCHUS FIGURED IF HE BUILT HIS MOUNTAIN-TOP TOMB
SURROUNDED BY STATUES OF HIMSELF WITH THE GODS,
HE'D JOIN THAT DIVINE INNER CIRCLE.
AND FOR 2,000 YEARS,
HE'S BEEN HERE WITH HERCULES, APOLLO, AND THE GANG,
WATCHING SILENTLY OVER THE STUBBORN VASTNESS OF ANATOLIA.
THANKS FOR JOINING US.
MEHLI AND I HOPE YOU'VE ENJOYED OUR LOOK AT EASTERN TURKEY.
AND I'LL SEE YOU NEXT TIME FOR MORE TRAVEL THRILLS.
UNTIL THEN, I'M RICK STEVES.
KEEP ON TRAVELIN'.

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Eastern Turkey

1836 Folder Collection
Jane published on July 12, 2015
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