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  • This is CNN STUDENT NEWS. Ten minutes of current events for middle and high school students

  • with no commercials. I`m Carl Azuz.

  • Can you name the world capital with the worst air quality on earth? Here`s a hint: it`s

  • not in China. It`s in Southern Asia, the nation of India, it`s New Delhi. Last year, the World

  • Health Organization labeled New Delhi the most polluted capital city. This month, Indian

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi instituted a new program. It will monitor air quality in

  • ten Indian cities. It will track their pollution levels and label cities green for cleaner

  • air and red for dirtier air. It`s intended to help the public see and take action in

  • response to high pollution levels. India`s leader says he`s trying to change the international

  • view that India doesn`t care about the environment.

  • Early morning, barely visible in the smog, Delhi`s iconic India gate. For years, most

  • people in the sprawling city of 23 million never questioned the quality of the air. Just

  • a mix of desert dust and winter fog was the urban myth. But in 2014, World Health Organization

  • study of 1600 cities found India`s capital has the most toxic air in the world, largely

  • due to the highest concentrations of microscopic particles known at PM 2.5.

  • We go on a (INAUDIBLE) ride with American scientist Joshua Apte to test the air for

  • ourselves. He`s been monitoring Delhi`s pollution since 2007.

  • We`re looking at levels of PM 2.5 right now that are around 250 to 300 micograms per cubic

  • meter, so 25 to 30 times higher than that long-term standard that we might hear about.

  • But everyone keeps talking about how bad it is in Beijing, but not so much in Delhi.

  • I think that`s really just a function of awareness. Levels in Delhi are about 45 or 50 percent

  • higher than those levels in Beijing.

  • Really?

  • So the standard from the World Health Organization is 10. Typical levels in Beijing are just

  • about 100 precisely. And in Delhi over the past years, the average has been more like

  • 150.

  • Apte says to the naked eye, Delhi may not appear as bad as Beijing because PM 2.5s are

  • practically invisible, but they`re the most damaging to the lungs.

  • As India makes economic development a priority, pollution levels are only set to increase.

  • Studies show some 660 million Indians lose about three years of their lives because of

  • the air they breath.

  • Today`s date is exactly one year after Boko Haram terrorists kidnapped almost 300 schoolgirls

  • from a campus in Nigeria. Some of the escaped, the rest are still in captivity.

  • Malala Yousafzai is a Nobel Peace Prize winner who was targeted herself for supporting women`s

  • education rights. She released an open letter yesterday to encourage the girls and to push

  • the Nigerian government and other countries to do more to find them.

  • "To the girls,` the letter reads, "remember that one day your tragic ordeal will end.

  • You`ll be reunited with your families and friends. You will have the chance to finish

  • the education you courageously sought."

  • Malala says she looks forward to the day when she can hug them, pray with them, and celebrate

  • their freedom. She also calls the girls her heroes.

  • This Roll Call segment is for the birds, specifically the Cardinals. That`s because the Cardinals

  • of Monticello, Kentucky, are watching. They`re at Wayne County High School in the bluegrass

  • state. The Cardinals of Redwood Falls, Minnesota, are next. They`re perched at Redwood Valley

  • Middle and High Schools in the land of 10,000 lakes. And guess who? The Cardinals. Davison

  • Middle School in Davison, Michigan, rounds out today`s Roll.

  • There are now four major U.S. political candidates who have declared they`re running for president

  • in 2016. Republican Senator Marco Rubio made his announcement yesterday. The lawmaker from

  • Florida joins two other Republicans and one Democrat in the race for the White House.

  • We`re more than a year and a half from election day but from perspective, campaigns for the

  • 2008 presidential election began almost two and a half years before the vote.

  • This is a taxing time of year for many of your parents. Tomorrow is Tax Day in America.

  • It`s the deadline for filing last year`s tax returns with the Internal Revenue Service,

  • the IRS. A lot of folks will owe money to Uncle Sam, a lot of folks will get a tax refund.

  • Income tax is constitutional.

  • The 16th Amendment, which was ratified in 1913, gives Congress the power to impose and

  • collect income taxes and it could take an act of Congress to change that.

  • If you don`t pay your taxes, the IRS will eventually find you. We know a lot of people

  • get hauled into court for their back taxes.

  • About one fifth of it goes to defense, about one fifth goes to Social Security, another

  • fifth goes to healthcare and a little less than that goes to veterans.

  • We had an income tax during the Civil War, then it was declared unconstitutional by the

  • Supreme Court in 1895. Then the income tax came back in 1913 and that sets up the modern

  • income tax as we know it today.

  • One of the reasons that historians think we pay in the spring was at one point taxes were

  • levy, mostly on the rich, and the rich started to get out of town for the summer in the spring,

  • so the government wanted to collect taxes in the spring before rich people skip town.

  • We have a very complicated tax structure and a lot of it has grown up because interest

  • groups have asked for certain things as our tax laws have been rewritten. The last time

  • it got a full rewrite was back in 1986. Ever since then, most lawmakers have been talking

  • about how complicated the tax code is but no one has rewritten it.

  • There are all sorts of battles about the tax code. Some people have proposed flat taxes,

  • a national sales tax, whether the rich should pay more in taxes.

  • People who don`t eat a lot or pick at their food are said to eat like a bird, but do they

  • really? Birds actually eat a lot compared to what they weigh, about half their body

  • weight in food every day. So if you weighed 100 pounds and you really ate like a bird,

  • you`d be eating about 50 pounds of food every day. Now That`s Random.

  • Alright. Alien life makes for a great headline. To be clear, humans haven`t found out. Scientists

  • with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration believe finding water is key to finding signs

  • of alien life since water harbors so many forms of life on earth. As they scour the

  • solar system for water, they`re optimistic of finding life in really tiny forms in the

  • years ahead.

  • Discovering alien life. It`s the holy grail of space exploration. Well, NASA`s chief scientist

  • Ellen Stofan says that such a finding is not that far off. She expects that we`ll find

  • indications of life within the next decade and definitive evidence within the next 30

  • years.

  • Within all of our lifetime, though, we`re going to understand that there`s life on other

  • bodies in the solar system.

  • We`re on the verge of things that people have wondered about for millennia. Are we alone?

  • Why the burst of optimism? Water. Water is a key ingredient in life as we know it and

  • scientists say if you find water, your odds of finding life go up. And it turns out our

  • galaxy is a soggy place.

  • Outside of our solar system, astronomers think there may be many worlds covered by deep oceans.

  • So NASA says our galaxy and our solar system are awash in water and it`s just a matter

  • of time until we find life on another planet. But don`t expect little green men.

  • NASA says expect little green microbes.

  • Well this is something you don`t expect when you try out for crew. A rowing team was making

  • its way across a lake in Missouri when something fishy started happening. Asian carp, by the

  • dozens, if not the hundreds, started flinging themselves up and around the athletes. The

  • flying fish are known to cause cuts and worse injury to boaters, but the eye reporter who

  • got this video said no one was seriously hurt.

  • So what`s not to lake? We wouldn`t say everything turned out rosy when the rowers` row arose

  • with hatch row (ph) but when you fished out your camera for your very own fin club, you`ve

  • just got to press row-cord (ph) and carpe diem.

  • I`m Carpel (ph) Azuz for CNN STUDENT NEWS. Subtitles End: mo.dbxdb.com

This is CNN STUDENT NEWS. Ten minutes of current events for middle and high school students

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