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  • 1979, the world casts a wary eye towards Afghanistan.

  • The year prior Nuri Muhammad trickery had seized power and installed a communist government.

  • Much to the Soviet Union's pleasure however, to Carrie's government has turned brutally oppressive.

  • With mass executions and extrajudicial arrests the move sparked an insurgency widely labeled as the afghan mujahideen.

  • While the same name has a religious significance, the truth is the rebel forces are split along the ideological lines with some practicing hardcore fundamentalism and others embracing secularism.

  • They are united.

  • However, in their wish to overthrow the Dockery regime in april nor muhamad trickery is removed from power forcefully and replaced with Hafizullah Amin a few months later in september at first, I mean tries to quell the growing rebellion with friendly overtures, but his security forces disappeared.

  • Thousands of people behind the scenes.

  • The abuses only increase as time goes on and the rebellion festers Amine is so unpopular that the soviet union begins to suspect he's a CIA plant purposefully placed in power in order to collapse the afghan communist government.

  • On December 25, 1979, the Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.

  • Its goal is simple remove Amin from power and establish a legitimate communist government.

  • Two days later, Soviet special forces locate and assassinate a mean the war if it can be called, that should be over in a matter of months, it would last 10 years.

  • The United States is initially caught off guard by the soviet Union invasion.

  • Its intelligence efforts in the region have been to date and almost complete failure.

  • The CIA and other intelligence agencies have been largely focused on central and south America due to communism, paranoia, in the effort to keep the perceived threat out of America's own backyard.

  • To date, the CIA has funneled half a million dollars worth of medical and non lethal aid to the mujahideen but not supported the insurgency in any significant way.

  • Soviet fears of american intervention in Afghanistan are hilariously overblown, but that will soon change discussions about soviet interventionism in Afghanistan have been taking place for months though nobody suspected a full blown invasion was truly imminent.

  • America has a very real interest in making the Afghan situation difficult for the Soviets, but differ on how important it truly is.

  • For some Afghanistan is a chance to pay back the soviet union for its interference in Vietnam.

  • A war that cost the US dearly in manpower and capital.

  • Others feared that increasing aid to the mujahideen would only encourage the Soviets to more directly intervene.

  • An april 5th memo by national intelligence officer Arnold Horlick lays out the stakes, covert action would raise the cost to the Soviets and inflame muslim opinion against them in many countries.

  • The risk is that a substantial U.

  • S.

  • Covert aid program could raise the stakes and induce the Soviets to intervene more directly and vigorously than otherwise intended preliminary meetings with the mujahideen leadership have already been undertaken, but still the U.

  • S.

  • Has played a cautious hand in Afghanistan, the soviet invasion changes all of that texas democrat congressman charlie Wilson watches the invasion takes place from a hot tub in las Vegas.

  • A playboy at heart.

  • Wilson nonetheless is shocked at the brutality of soviet bombing of Afghan civilians and vows to do something to help the Afghan people with the best of intentions.

  • He sets out to build a Washington coalition.

  • With one purpose push for the direct military support of the mujahideen in Afghanistan.

  • Seeing an opportunity for payback and to force the soviet union to lose its focus in Africa.

  • The program to aid the mujahideen, now code named Operation Cyclone is approved at first Operation Cyclone aims to keep US involvement in the war within the realm of plausible deniability to this effect.

  • The program initially focuses on providing training and logistical support to the mujahideen as well as equipping them with soviet made weapons purchased by the CIA covertly with Iran on one side though and the Soviets directly north.

  • This leaves the US with only Pakistan as a route into the country.

  • This is a difficult position for the U.

  • S.

  • As Pakistan's recent development of nuclear weapons has put a severe strain between the two nations in order to improve relations.

  • It's decided that Pakistan would be granted near full control over the dissemination of american aide to the mujahedeen.

  • Some within the CIA State Department and other agencies expressed concern over the decision As Pakistan clearly favors the more fundamentalist forces inside Afghanistan itself.

  • Their concerns are ignored with inevitable, disastrous future consequences.

  • In order to coordinate the influx of America's funding, equipment and weapons, Pakistan's president, Muhammad Zia ul HAQ turns to the Inter services intelligence agency at the time of Pakistani intelligence agencies struggling for legitimacy, the massive responsibility of coordinating millions of dollars in U.

  • S.

  • Aid.

  • However, skyrockets the agency's legitimacy, cementing it as an instrument of power in Pakistan for decades to come.

  • This too, would eventually be a mistake.

  • Massive refugee camps are set up along the Pakistan border and the United States contributes millions of dollars in humanitarian aid to these camps, sensing an opportunity.

  • However hardline fundamentalist clerics from Saudi Arabia and other muslim nations converge on the camps, slowly indoctrinating tens of thousands of young Afghan men into religious fundamentalism.

  • One of these Saudi Holy men bears the name Osama bin laden, whose family owns a construction firm worth millions of dollars and has close ties to the Saudi government.

  • Despite early warning signs that Bin laden and others are preaching a dangerous fundamentalist form of islam to vulnerable young men who will soon be armed to the teeth.

  • The United States ignores these warnings and continues on with almost no oversight of Pakistan's dissemination of U.

  • S.

  • Aid.

  • Even worse, the US now directly help spread the message of Radical Islam believing it to be a valuable recruitment tool right here in America, the CIA enlists Egyptian double agent Ali Abdul Saoud Mohammed and sends him to recruit American Muslims to fight in Afghanistan operating out of the key for refugee center in Brooklyn Mohammed preaches a fiery message of holy war to impressionable youths, bolstering the ranks of the mujahideen around the world.

  • The CIA encourages similar recruitment efforts, helping funnel tens of thousands of volunteer fighters to Pakistan.

  • Mohammad would eventually make his way to Pakistan as well, where he would use his U.

  • S.

  • Army training to instruct both Ayman al Zahari, the founder of Egyptian, Islamic Jihad and Osama bin laden inside Afghanistan.

  • The grinding war against the soviet occupation continues on.

  • American aid is now supplemented by the british Saudi Arabia and even china whose own relations with the soviet union have seriously deteriorated the british leading the second greatest effort after the Americans have thrown much of their support behind Ahmad Shah Massoud Massoud is a brilliant guerilla commander, instrumental in the defeat of several soviet offensives.

  • It is a growing national hero to the Afghan people.

  • However, his fearsome militia is increasingly being infiltrated by a hardline fundamentalists.

  • While Mossad himself as a moderate, he has no choice but to accept the troops available to him D.

  • M.

  • I.

  • Six.

  • Thus arms Mossad's militia with thousands of rifles, mines, explosives, radios and 50 missile launchers with 300 missiles.

  • The british even used the S.

  • A.

  • S to train Mossad's militia directly.

  • One thing is becoming clear though, moderate voices within the Afghan resistance are becoming increasingly scarce.

  • Pakistan and America maybe allied and their wish to see the Soviets evicted from Afghanistan.

  • But their long term vision for the nation differs greatly for one, America doesn't have one, It's not even remotely invested in the long term state of Afghanistan.

  • Even as it becomes increasingly clear, the soviet union can't maintain this invasion forever.

  • This leaves the door wide open for Pakistan to shape the future of Afghanistan.

  • As it sees fit for starters, it views the nation as a vital buffer between itself and Iran.

  • It also needs a future Afghanistan that will not become a close U.

  • S.

  • Ally.

  • Pakistan fears that the United States who does not look favorably on Pakistan efforts.

  • Development of nuclear weapons might use Afghanistan as a staging ground for its own invasion in a bid to strip Pakistan of nuclear arms.

  • Thus, it must make sure that the future Afghanistan is one hostile to U.

  • S.

  • Interests, luckily the indoctrination of tens of thousands of Afghan youths and volunteer mujahideen by extremist clerics provides the opportunity they need.

  • The I.

  • S.

  • I.

  • Works busily to build strong relationships with the most fundamentalist of militias, funneling american weapons and money to them directly.

  • While choking off moderate forces, Pakistan is not particularly invested in the growing fundamentalist Islamic movement within the mujahideen.

  • But the movement proves to be a powerful binding force and the promise of a strong future government for the nation which will be greatly indebted to Pakistan of course.

  • Even as warnings of rising fundamentalism continue to rise, they are ignored 1985 President Ronald Reagan ends all pretenses by announcing America's global support of anti soviet resistance movements.

  • Even as much as a few years ago, this would have been impossible and tantamount to a declaration of war against the soviet union.

  • But news back home and in the U.

  • S.

  • S.

  • R.

  • Not good.

  • The country is experiencing increasing political unrest and the war in Afghanistan as well as the soviet support for communist guerilla movements around the world are straining the soviet economy.

  • Reagan senses an opportunity to strike a definitive blow against the soviet union.

  • With the Declaration of the Reagan doctrine, the flow of weapons and money to the mujahideen increases exponentially free of the restraint of having to support the movement covertly.

  • The CIA no longer has to limit its efforts by purchasing soviet made weapons.

  • Reagan's proclamation allows the US now to arm the mujahideen with more modern and far more capable weapons for years, the soviet air force is wrecked havoc against the mujahideen soviet hind attack helicopters have been particularly deadly opponents hunting down and annihilating mujahideen forces.

  • Even in their traditional safe zones high up in the mountains.

  • Starting in 1985, the US arms, the Mujahideen with the stinger shoulder fired surface to air missile system and almost immediately Soviet aircraft losses skyrocket, the effectiveness of the weapon would be hotly debated for decades to come.

  • But one thing's for sure.

  • After its introduction in Afghanistan, the soviet air force no longer operated as brazenly as it had before.

  • This allows the mujahideen to make serious inroads in its fight against the Soviets.

  • It's only with the introduction of the Stinger to the mujahideen and the reports of mounting soviet aircraft losses that America begins to show some concern over its to date completely unchecked tidal wave of money and weapons to Afghanistan.

  • There are growing worries that the Stingers will eventually make their way out of the country and be used to shoot down civilian or military aircraft.

  • Perhaps even American ones.

  • For the first time, the U.

  • S.

  • Takes note of the rising wave of dangerous fundamentalism against the mujahideen though.

  • Ultimately, America continues to leave Pakistan in charge of who receives what inevitably the soviet union is forced to limp out of Afghanistan in 1989 suffering over 14,000 dead and 50,000 wounded.

  • The war is over the mujahideen successful.

  • Yet even as moderates like Ahmad Shah Massoud are being forced into the peripheries of post soviet Afghanistan.

  • The only concern that the United States shows, and what happens next is the retrieval of the Stinger missile units provided to the mujahideen in what would become the single most baffling foreign policy decision of the 20th century history.

  • President Ronald Reagan and successor H.

  • W Bush show absolutely no interest in the shaping of future Afghanistan.

  • Even as civil war breaks out between extremist fundamentalists and the vastly outnumbered moderates, the United States pays no attention with the direct aid and support of Pakistan.

  • Extremist forces take over most of the country, leaving what has become the moderate United Islamic front for the salvation of Afghanistan or Northern Alliance in control of only 5 to 10% of the nation.

  • With the formation of the Taliban government, Pakistan has achieved its strategic goals in the nation All on America's dime.

  • On september 9th 2000 and one moderate leader and national hero, Ahmed Shah Massoud, once back directly by M.

  • I.

  • Six is assassinated by the Taliban and Al Qaeda, who both feared that in their coming attack against America and the U.

  • S.

  • Is inevitable response.

  • Mossad would be installed as a popular leader to reunite the nation against the Taliban.

  • Now go watch how I survived an actual military war zone.

1979, the world casts a wary eye towards Afghanistan.

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    林宜悉 posted on 2021/11/27
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