Subtitles section Play video Print subtitles Thanks to Kiwi co for sponsoring today's video us redheads account for 1 to 2% of the population but the lower around us seems a lot bigger than that, assuming we have sharp tempers or that people with red hair get mad easily. None of this is founded in scientific research. I never get pistol but I do have a hard time feeling any physical pain. And new scientific research explains why us redheads have a distorted perception of pain. Each of your roughly 30 to 37 trillion human cells have jeans tightly wound up in the nucleus where proteins called his stones keep those genes tightly packed. In fact, if unraveled The DNA in each of your human cells would stretch to around two m meaning that have strung end to end all of your D. N. A. Could travel to the moon and back over 150,000 times. I had to keep verifying this research because it's like how that possible the histone proteins carefully unravel the genes in specific ways to be read by proteins that create more proteins that control every aspect of your life. You can now understand how complex these genes are in relation to our lives. But in 2000 and three when we sequenced the human genome, we entered a new era of genetic research. Some of the research that I'm obsessed with our genome wide association studies where they look at large swaths of jeans and then they start to be able to link them to things like depression and aggression and even being gay more info by collecting the card here, we made a video on it. Gay rights because red hair is something that we can see physically, we can study it much more easily. There are still many complicated genes that control red hair. But the gene that we're gonna be talking about today is the M. C. One R. Gene which also relates to how weirdly we feel pain. The M. C. One R. Gene is a recessive gene which means you need two copies of the gene for it to be expressed physically. For example, you inherited two gene copies of any given trait from your birth parents, one inherited from whoever birth do from their vagina and one inherited from whoever put their semen in the vagina. These are known as maternal al eels and paternal alleles and how they interact. Make the unique characteristics of you. A dominant Khalil is one that always determines the phenotype or physical expression when present. On the other hand, a recess evaluate like red hair is one that is not expressed when it's paired with an A. Level that is dominant recessive values only express themselves physically when you have two recessive alleles from your parents. So redheads need to have two recessive alleles to have red hair and now it's upon its square time. 13 in the mail on it square time. If one of your parents is a redhead and the other has black hair. But as a carrier there's a 50% chance you'll have red hair if both of your parents have black hair but are carriers, there is a 25% chance you could have red hair. My mom has red hair. My dad has dark brown hair, so he must have been a carrier for me to have red hair. If he wasn't then I wouldn't have ended up with this red beard that kind of turns blond when I bleached in the sun and sometimes I even put lemon in it to make a blonde. Don't tell anyone speaking of my family. Before we get to the scientific truth about gingers and pain. We need to talk about today's sponsor kiwi Co, which was the best gift I've ever given my family aside from whenever I bless them with my presence, I'm not kidding. I bought my nephew the koala crate and now every month he gets hands on projects delivered to him in the mail that helped get him interested in science, technology, engineering and art. My family loves them. My sister loves them. I love them. Whenever I'm looking after him, I just open up a crate, he's amused. He's learning the very tactile. I am now the best uncle by using kiwi co dot com slash S app. You get your first month free. Each box comes with all of the supplies. That's the best feeling. It's all in there. You don't have to run to the store, there's different boxes for different ages. He's three. So I get him the one for 2 to 4 year olds you can get the 14 plus ones which I actually personally like you know I got to build myself. Headphones are not gonna wear my headphones. People say where you got them. I say I made them use kiwi co dot com slash Js app for your first month free. You also help our show we're honestly just obsessed with kiwi co. But now back to how the M. C. One R variant affects ginger's ability to feel pain when you have red hair. You have the M. C. One R. Gene variant and this variant leads to an abnormal in quotes milano Corton one receptor protein on the surface of your melanocytes which controls the color of your hair and skin. Your melanocytes are in the basal membrane of your skin and produce two kinds of Melanie. Fio melanin and you melanin. You melanin is more prominent in people with darker skin but the abnormal red hair. M. CR one protein releases mostly feel melanin. This causes you to grow red hair have freckles and be fair skin slash more sensitive to skin cancer. It is this specific EMC one our gene that links directly to why us redheads have distorted perceptions of pain and why we're freaks of nature. How did that get that out of that out? Don't tell anyone what what's going on. Youtube. When researchers induced the M. C. One R. Gene in mice they found that when prodding the mice in the control group felt significantly more pain than the ones with the modified redhead M. C. One R. Gene they felt less pain. Another study found that EMC one, our mutant redhead mice were less sensitive to poisonous stings. The biochemical reason for this is that the M. C. One R. Redhead gene variant created melanocytes that secrete lower levels of the protein called appropriate milano Corton pomc for short pomc is cut up to create hormones that increase pain perception and also affects the emcee for our proteins which increase pain tolerance overall. But with science it's not always that simple and there's a couple wrenches that have been thrown into this for example. It has been found that redheads have more sensitivity to thermal pane when exposing brown haired women and red haired women to extreme cold or hot temperatures. The redhead seem to feel it more. This study relied on subjective responses to women being put in painful situations but there are a few other studies that back up this research that redheads are more sensitive to hot and cold. The reason this information is medically important is that some doctors think we need to look at redheads differently when we're giving anesthesia. Also maybe with CRISPR CAs nine gene editing. I can get my little redhead kids to have a bit more pain perception cause sometimes my legs freaking bleeding. I looked down. I haven't even noticed it's like maybe I needed to get a band aid on that before I was infected. Also, sometimes when I'm making jokes, my friends, I'm like, shut up and punch them and they're like, oh, and I'm like, oh, that hurt because when people punished me, I'm just like, oh, I felt kind of good. I'm happy to be alive in 2021 at a time where we can understand this complex genetic science and link it to my physiological experience. Because six years ago it was thought that redheads were witches, but it was alive then I would be a redhead who was gay and I would definitely have been burned at the stake. Thank you so much for watching and we'll see you next week for a new science video peace.